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UK Hebrew Roots/Messianic/Nazarene Forum •First century technical terms
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First century technical terms

Posted: Sun Jan 14, 2018 12:35 pm
by nazarene
Technical terms.

The Scriptures sometimes use technical terminology. A technical term is a word that has a specialized meaning relating to a specialized area.

Below are some examples of a technical term being employed in the Scriptures with supporting evidence from outside writers demonstrating their usage also;

Act 27:9 And much time having passed, and the voyage already being dangerous, because the Fast already had gone by, Paul warned them,

The term 'The Fast' is a technical term relating to the Day of Atonement, Philo also writing in the first century uses this term in describing the Day of Atonement;

Spec. 2:41 41 I. Now there are ten festivals in number, as the law sets them down. The first is that which any one will perhaps be astonished to hear called a festival. This festival is every day. The second festival is the seventh day, which the Hebrews in their native language call the sabbath. The third is that which comes after the conjunction, which happens on the day of the new moon in each month. The fourth is that of the passover which is called the pascha. The fifth is the first fruits of the corn-- the sacred sheaf. The sixth is the feast of unleavened bread, after which that festival is celebrated, which is really the seventh day of seventh days. The eighth is the festival of the sacred moon, or the feast of trumpets. The ninth is the fast. The tenth is the feast of tabernacles, which is the last of all the annual festivals, ending so as to make the perfect number of ten. We must now begin with the first festival.

In the first century Passover and the Feast of Unleavened bread were combined together and collectively could be called the Feast of Unleavened bread;

Mar_14:12 And on the first day of the Unleavened Bread, when they killed the Passover, His disciples said to Him, Where do You desire that going we may prepare that You may eat the Passover?

Here in Mark the passover lamb has not yet been slain yet it says it is the first day of unleavened bread, this is because in the first century both Feasts were combined together into one, as Josephus writing also in the first century shows;

Antiquities of the Jews 2:317 317 Hence it is that, in memory of the want we were then in, we keep a feast for eight days, which is called the feast of unleavened bread. Now the entire multitude of those who went out, including the women and children, was not easy to be numbered; but those who were of an age fit for war, were six hundred thousand.

Mat 23:15 `Woe to you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye go round the sea and the dry land to make one proselyte, and whenever it may happen--ye make him a son of gehenna twofold more than yourselves.

The phrase 'woe to you' was used in sectarian disputes. Below is an example of the phrase being used in relation to one such dispute, even though the word 'heretic' is used [a min in hebrew], it denotes a different form of judaism of the opponent, a gentile would not be called a heretic, so it gives us insight to the kind of language that was employed in the first century when disputes between sects arose, notice carefully that both use the phrase 'woe to you';

The Gemara relates that a certain heretic said to Geviha ben Pesisa: Woe unto you, the wicked, as you say: The dead will come to life. The way of the world is that those who are alive die. How can you say that the dead will come to life? Geviha ben Pesisa said to him: Woe unto you, the wicked, as you say: The dead will not come to life. If those who were not in existence come to life, is it not reasonable all the more so that those who were once alive will come to life again? The heretic said to Geviha ben Pesisa angrily: You called me wicked? If I stand, I will kick you and flatten your hump, as Geviha ben Pesisa was a hunchback. Geviha ben Pesisa said to him jocularly: If you do so, you will be called an expert doctor and will take high wages for your services. T. Sanhedrin 91.a

Mat 19:3 Then the Pharisees came unto him, tempting him and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for any cause?

In the first century there was an 'any cause' divorce, this 'any cause' divorce permitted a man to divorce his wife for any reason, and so when Yeshua is asked a question in Matthew 19:3 the technical term 'any cause' was used.

Below demonstrates how this 'any cause' was used;

Beit Shammai say, "No man shall divorce his wife, unless he found in her unchaste behaviour, as it is stated [Deuteronomy 24:1], 'Because he found in her 'ervat davar' [unchaste behavior].'" Beit Hillel say, "Even if she spoiled his food, because it is said, ervat davar" mGit.9:10

The word 'davar' means matter or thing, and so the ruling of the house of Hillel was that a divorce could be for any matter or thing. When Yeshua is asked about the any cause divorce, it was being asked because there was a debate if divorce could be granted for any reason.

Josephus in the first century also uses this phrase 'any cause' in relation to divorce;

Antiquities of the Jews 4:253 253 He that desires to be divorced from his wife for any cause whatever, (and many such causes happen among men,) let him in writing give assurance that he will never use her as his wife any more; for by this means she may be at liberty to marry another husband, although before this bill of divorce be given, she is not to be permitted so to do: but if she be misused by him also, or if, when he is dead, her first husband would marry her again, it shall not be lawful for her to return to him.

1Co_9:9 For it has been written in the Law of Moses, "You shall not muzzle an ox treading out grain." Deut. 25:4 Is it that it matters to God as to oxen?

The apostle Paul uses an ox in his argument dealing with humans. In the first century 'ox' was being used as a technical term, shorthand for animal and human servants. Below the king and slave spoken of are equated to an owner and his ox;

The Gemara asks: But what is the reason that others do not judge the kings of Israel? It is because of an incident that happened, as the slave of Yannai the king killed a person. Shimon ben Shataḥ said to the Sages: Put your eyes on him and let us judge him. They sent word to Yannai: Your slave killed a person. Yannai sent the slave to them. They sent word to Yannai: You also come here, as the verse states with regard to an ox that gored a person to death: “He should be testified against with his owner” (Exodus 21:29). The Torah stated: The owner of the ox should come and stand over his ox. b. Sanhedrin 19a

Mat_21:9 And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the Son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest.

The term 'son of David' is a technical term meaning the Mashiach, the King.

Psalms of Shlomo also uses this term, in chapter 17 [most likely written around the time of the first century];

Behold, O Lord, and raise up unto them their king, the son of David,
At the time in the which Thou seest, O God, that he may reign over Israel Thy servant.

Mat 16:19 And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

To bind and loose were technical terms relating to forbidding and permitting, this would have to power to bind or release people, the language of binding and loosing is in Josephus and later in the mishnah;

The Jewish War 1:111 111 Now Alexandra listened to them to an extraordinary degree, as being herself a woman of great piety toward God. But these Pharisees artfully insinuated themselves into her favour by little and little, and became themselves the real administrators of the public affairs: they banished and reduced whom they pleased; they bound and loosed [men] at their pleasure; and, to say all at once, they had the enjoyment of the royal authority, while the expenses and the difficulties of it belonged to Alexandra.

"Masters of assemblies." These are the disciples of wise men, who sit by companies and study in the Law, some declaring unclean and others declaring clean, some binding and others loosing, some disqualifying and others pronouncing ceremonially pure. Hagigah 3

1Co 15:3 For I delivered to you from the first, as I had received it; that the Messiah died on account of our sins, as it is written:

Both terms 'delivered' and 'received' are technical terms relating to authoritative tradition that has been received and accurately relayed.

Moshe received the Torah [including the ethical teachings that follow in this Tractate] from [He, that revealed Himself, at] Sinai, and transmitted it to Yehoshua, and Yehoshua to the Elders [who immediately proceeded him], and the Elders to the Prophets [who proceeded them] and the Prophets handed it down to the [120 Sages] members of the Great Assembly [who included Zerubavel, Nehemiah, and Mordechai ..Mishnah Avot 1

Antiquities of the Jews 13:297 297 but of these matters we shall speak hereafter. What I would now explain is this, that the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the laws of Moses; and for that reason it is that the Sadducees reject them, and say that we are to esteem those observances to be obligatory which are in the written word, but are not to observe what are derived from the tradition of our forefathers.

Re: First century technical terms

Posted: Sun Feb 11, 2018 1:20 pm
by nazarene
Some more terms;

Joh 4:17 And the woman answered and said, I have no husband. Yeshua said to her, Well did you say, I have no husband.

(Ibid. 24) "And the L rd said to him: Go descend": Well have you spoken. This is as R. Yehudah says: Whence is it derived that the Holy One Blessed be He said to Moses: I will say something to you, and you will answer Me, and I will acknowledge what you have said — so that Israel will say: Great is Moses, whom the Holy One Blessed be He acknowledged? (From the above.) Rebbi says: We would have to acknowledge the greatness of Moses only if we assumed that the Holy One Blessed be He retracted His directive. (Rather,) He spoke thus because one is prompted to zeal at the time of learning (what he must do) and at the time of acting. Mekhilta 19:24

Mat 5:31 It was also said, Whoever puts away his wife, "let him give her a bill of divorce."
Mat 5:27 You have heard that it was said to the ancients: "Do not commit adultery."

The phrase "you have heard it said" or "it was said" is also a technical phrase relating to authoritative teaching that has been passed down;

They make openings by reference to the Shabbatot and festivals. At first they used to say: on those days the vow is cancelled, but for others it is forbidden, until Rabbi Akiva came and taught: a vow which is partially released is entirely released. Mishnah Nedarim 9:6

[With regard to] one who says, "Write a bill of divorce , and give it to my wife," or, "Divorce her," or, "Write her a letter and give it her," they shall write it and give it [to her]. [If he said,] "Release her," or, "Provide her her maintenance," or, "Do with her as is customary," or, "Do with her as is proper," he has said nothing [of significance]. Originally, they would say [that with regard to] one who was being led out with an iron collar [to the place of execution], and he said, "Write a bill of divorce for my wife," they shall write it and give it [to her]. They retracted [that] to say, "Even one who is going to sea, or to travel with a caravan [in the desert]." Rabbi Shimon Shazuri says, "Even one who is dangerously ill." Mishnah Gittin 6:5

Mat 5:28 But I say to you, Everyone looking at a woman to lust after her has already committed adultery with her in his heart.

Also the phrase "I say" is also a technical term relating to a ruling in halacha, that is, how the Torah should be interpreted and walked out in daily life.

m.Arakhin 4.2 But it is not so with offerings. If a man said: I take upon myself the offering of this leper, and the leper was poor, he brings the offering of a poor man. But if the leper was rich, he must bring the offering of a rich man. Rabbi says: I say the same applies with regard to a valuation. Why is a poor man who evaluated a rich man obliged to pay only the valuation of a poor man? Because the rich man had not incurred any liability whatsoever. But if the rich man said: I evaluate myself` and the poor man, hearing that, said: what this man has said, I take upon myself, then he must pay the valuation of a rich man. If he was poor and then became rich, or rich and then became poor, he must pay the valuation of a rich man. R. Judah says: even if he was poor and became rich and then again became poor he must pay the valuation of a rich man.

Mikvot 3:4 R. Jose says R. Meir used to say, they immerse themselves in the upper one. But I say in the lower and the sages say whether in the upper so and so they should immerse themselves only in the middle.

This technical phrase 'say' is also used in the dead sea scrolls in relation to ruling in halacha.

(51) and do not see the minglings which entail guilt (offering). (52) And furthermore concerning the deaf who have not heard the decrees and judgements and purity (rules) and have not (53) heard the judgements of Israel - for he who has not seen and has not heard (them) does not (54) know how to practise (them); yet they come to the pure food of the Sanctuary. vacat (55) And furthermore concerning the pouring (of liquids), we say that it contains no (56) purity. And furthermore the pouring does not separate the impure (57) {from the pure} (4Q397 6-13) for the poured liquid and that in the receptacle are alike, (58 one liquid. And {dogs} (4Q397 6-13) are not to be brought to the sacred camp for (59) they may eat some of the bones from the Sanctua[ry] to which meat is still attached. For (60) Jerusalem is {the sacred camp} (4Q3976-13) and is the place (4Q394 8 iv conflated with 4Q 396 1-2 ii and 4Q 397 6-13)

This language is also employed by the apostle Paul.

Rom_4:9 Is this blessedness, therefore, only upon the circumcision or also upon the uncircumcision? for we say that faith was reckoned to Abraham as righteousness.

The phrase "I say" is also used by another one called a rabbi;

Joh 3:26 And they came unto John and said unto him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond Jordan of whom thou gave witness, behold, the same baptizes, and all men come to him.

Mat 3:9 and think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham as our father, for I say unto you that God is able to raise up children unto Abraham of these stones.

Mat 23:23 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you pay tithes of mint and dill and cummin, and you have left aside the weightier matters of the Law: judgment, and mercy, and faith. It was right to do these, and not to have left those aside.

The Torah has Commandments that are 'weightier', the implication being that some are considered less weightier, or lighter. This is another technical term that Yeshua employs.

This idea of weight, greater or lesser is reflected in 4 Maccabees.

4Ma 5:19 Therefore do not suppose that it would be a petty sin if we were to eat defiling food;
4Ma 5:20 to transgress the law in matters either small or great is of equal seriousness,
4Ma 5:21 for in either case the law is equally slighted.

This idea of weight is also used in the Mishnah;

Rabbi [Yehuda haNasi] said: Which is the straight path that a person should choose for himself? Whichever [path] that is [itself] praiseworthy for the person adopting [it], And praiseworthy to him from [other] people. And be as careful with a light commandment as with a weighty one, for you do not know the reward given [for the fulfillment] of [the respective] commandments. Also, weigh the loss [that may be sustained through the fulfillment] of a commandment against the reward [that may be obtained] for [fulfilling] it. And [weigh] the gain [that may be obtained through the committing] of a transgression against the loss [that may be sustained] by [committing] it. Keep your eye on three things, and you will not come to sin: Know what is above you: An Eye that sees, and an Ear that hears, and all your deeds are written in a book.

As Commandments are understood in terms of 'weight' this helps us understand what the term least Commandment and greatest Commandment means.

Mat 5:19 Therefore, whoever relaxes one of these commandments, the least, and shall teach men so, he shall be called least in the kingdom of Heaven. But whoever does and teaches them, this one shall be called great in the kingdom of Heaven.

Mat 22:38 This is the first and great commandment.

The Commandments are understood in terms of minor [i.e. least] and major [i.e. greatest].

(1)Rebbi [i.e., Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi] says: Which is the proper path that a man should choose for himself? One which [avoids extremes, and strikes a proper balance, and] will be a credit to the person who adopts it and still earn him respect from his fellow man. And be scrupulous with [the performance of] a minor mitzvah as with a major mitzvah for unlike the punishment which the Torah ordained for various transgressions] you do not know the reward of mitzvot. And you should calculate the [comparative, insignificant financial] loss incurred by fulfilling a mitzvah [such as cost and time], compared to the [magnanimous] reward gained by its observance, and the [financial] gain received from committing a transgression [such as theft], compared to the loss which will be suffered. Consider these three things and you will not come unto sin. Know that which is above you. An eye that sees, an ear that hears and know that all your deeds are recorded. Avot 2:1

Re: First century technical terms

Posted: Tue Feb 13, 2018 6:07 pm
by nazarene
..Some more terms...

Act 1:12 Then they returned unto Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is from Jerusalem a sabbath day's journey.

A sabbath day's journey in the first century was considered a maximum of 2000 cubits. The sources cited below use this maximum figure, one from the Mishnah and one from the dead sea scrolls. They both use two different figures of 1000 and 2000, the number 2000 is ultimately derived from Numbers 35:5.

On that day, Rabbi Akiva expounded [the verse], (Numbers 35:5) "You shall measure outside the city on the eastern outskirts, two thousand cubits..." (Numbers 35:5), and another verse says (Numbers 35:4) "... from the wall of the city and outward, 1000 cubits around." It is impossible to say one thousand cubits, for it already said two thousand cubits, and it is impossible to say two thousand cubits, for it already said 1000 cubits. How does it work? One-thousand cubits is for the open land, and two thousand cubits is the Sabbath border [the distance one can travel from the city on Sabbath]." Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosi the Galilian says, one thousand cubits is for the open land, and two thousand cubits is for fields and orchards. (Mishnah Sotah 5)

In the dead sea scrolls it also speaks of 1000 and 2000 cubits. Compared with the Mishnah there is a central agreement of a maximum of 2000 cubits.

No man shall walk in the field to do business on the Sabbath. He shall not walk more than one thousand cubits beyond his town. No man shall eat on the Sabbath day except that which is already prepared. He shall eat nothing lying in the fields. He shall not drink except in the camp. XI If he is on a journey and goes down to bathe, he shall drink where he stands, but he shall not draw water into a vessel. He shall send out no stranger on his business on the Sabbath day. No man shall wear soiled garments, or garments brought to the store, unless they have been washed with water or rubbed with incense. No man shall willingly mingle (with others) on the Sabbath. No man shall walk more than two thousand cubits after a beast to pasture it outside his town. He shall not raise his hand to strike it with his fist. If it is stubborn he shall not take it out of his house. (The Statutes)

Mat 6:25 Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment?
Mat 6:26 Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?
Mat 6:27 Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature?
Mat 6:28 And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin:
Mat 6:29 And yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.
Mat 6:30 Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?

The phrase 'little faith' was a technical term in use in the first century, before the destruction of the Temple there were people who were considered men of great faith, any deviation from that level of faith was considered to be 'of small faith'...

The mishna states that from the time when the Second Temple was destroyed men of faith ceased. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: These are people who believe in the Holy One, Blessed be He, and place their trust in Him in all their ways. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer the Great says that whoever has bread in his basket to eat today and says: What shall I eat tomorrow, meaning he does not know how he will acquire bread for tomorrow, he is nothing other than from those of little faith. One must trust in God to provide him with his sustenance. Sotah 9

1Co 14:34 Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law.

The phrase "not permitted" is also a technical term dealing with what is not permissible as it relates to a specific ruling.

If a blemish appeared on it in its first year, he is permitted to keep it all the twelve months. After the twelve months, however, he is not permitted to keep it except for thirty days. m.Bekhoroth 4.2

Re: First century technical terms

Posted: Sun Mar 04, 2018 5:55 pm
by nazarene
..more technical terms..

Rev 20:14 And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.

The term 'second death' is a targumic term;

Let Reuben live in this world, nor die the second death which the wicked the in the world to come; and let his youths be with the men in number. Targum Jerusalem, Deuteronomy 33:6

Let Reuben live in this world, nor die the second death which the wicked die in the world to come; and let his youths be numbered with the young men of his brethren of Beth Israel. Targum Jonathan on Deuteronomy 33:6

Luk 4:25 and of a truth I say to you, Many widows were in the days of Elijah, in Israel, when the heaven was shut for three years and six months, when great famine came on all the land,

[N] So he imposed an oath on him by the God of Israel and said to him, ```My son, give glory to the Lord God of Israel and render praise to him; and tell me now what you have done; do not hide it from me.` And Achan answered Joshua, `Of a truth I have sinned against the Lord God of Israel, and this and that are what I did` (Josh.17.1-20).``
[O] What is the meaning of ``of a truth``? It means, ``truthfully.``
[P] [Joshua] said to him, ``Now note, I asked of you only one matter, but you answered me in two regards [saying, ``This and that``]. y.San.6.3, 27b-28a = m.San.6.2

Rom 9:32 Wherefore? Because they sought it not by faith, but as it were by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumblingstone;

The phrase 'works of the Torah' was a technical phrase within first century judaism[s] to denote a set of interpretations of how to walk out the written Torah.

Now, we have written to you some of the works of the Law, those which we determined would be beneficial for you and your people, because we have seen [that] you possess insight and knowledge of the Law.  Understand all these things and beseech Him to set your counsel straight and so keep you away from evil thoughts and the counsel of Belial.  Then you shall rejoice at the end time when you find the essence of our words to be true.  And it will be reckoned to you as righteousness, in that you have done what is right and good before Him, to your own benefit and to that of Israel. (p. 364, Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation)

Examples of some of these interpretations included;

(1) These are some of our words concerning [the Law of Go]d, that is, so[me (2) of the] works that [w]e [reckon (as justifying you; cf. Second Letter, line 34). All] of them have to do with [holy gifts] (3) and purity issues. Now, [concerning the offering of grain by the [Gentiles, who...] (4) and they tou[c]h it... and render it im[pure... One is not to eat] (5) any Gentile grain, nor is it permissible to bring it to the Tem[p]le. [Concerning the sin offering] (6) that is boiled in vessels [of Gentile copper,] by which means [they (the priests) render impure] (7) the flesh of their offerings, and (further, that) they b[oi]l in the courtya[rd of the Temple and thereby pollute] it (the Temple) (8) with the soup they make-(we disagree with these practices). Concerning sacrifices by Gentiles, [we say that (in reality) they] sacrifice (9) to the i[doll that seduces them; (therefore it is illicit). [Further, regarding the thank] offering (10) that accompanies peace offer[ings,] that they put aside on one day for the next, w[e reckon] (11) that the gra[in offering is to be ea]ten with the fat and the flesh on the day that they are [offer[ed. It is incumbant upon] (12) the priests to assure that care is taken in this matter, so that [the priests will not (13) brin[g] sin upon the people. Also, with regard to the purity of the heifer that purifies from sin (i.e., the Red Heifer): (14) he who slaughters it and he who burns it and he who gathers its ashes and he who sprinkles [the water] (15) (of purification from) sin-all of these are to be pure with the se[tt]ing of the sun, (16) so that (only) the pure man will be sprinkling upon the impure. The sons (17) of Aaron must give wa[rning in this matter...] [4Q, part 2, 1-17]

First century technical terms

Posted: Sun May 13, 2018 5:09 pm
by nazarene
...Glad Tidings and Kingdom of Heavens...

Mark 1:1 CJB Mark 1:1 The beginning of the Good News of Yeshua the Messiah, the Son of God:

The word 'gospel' can be translated also as 'good news' or 'glad tidings' in the first century the 'glad tidings' were being connected with the return of the Most High back to Zion. There are some sources that attest to a common expectation of a coming 'glad tidings'.

9 Upon a high mountain get up, ye prophets, that bring good tidings unto Zion; lift ye up your voice with strength that bring good tidings to Jerusalem; lift it up, be not afraid, say to the cities of the house of Judah, The kingdom of your God is revealed. ISAIAH 40:9 (Targum of Ben Uziel)

7 How beautiful upon the mountains of the land of Israel are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace, that publisheth salvation, saying to the congregation of Zion, The kingdom of thy God is revealed. ISAIAH 52 (Targum of Ben Uziel)

The Psalms of Solomon also attests to an expectation of a coming 'glad news';

11 1 Blow ye in Zion on the trumpet to summon (the) saints, 2 Cause ye to be heard in Jerusalem the voice of him that bringeth good tidings; For God hath had pity on Israel in visiting them. The Psalms Of Solomon

The dead sea scrolls also attest to an expectation of a coming 'glad news';

This is the day of [Peace/Salvation] concerning which [God] spoke [through Isa]iah the prophet, who said, [How] beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of the messenger who proclaims peace, who brings good news, who proclaims salvation, who says to Zion: Your ELOHIM [reigns] (Isa. lii, 7). [11Q13]

Matthew 4:17 17 From that time on, Yeshua began proclaiming, "Turn from your sins to God, for the Kingdom of Heaven is near!"

The phrase 'Kingdom of Heavens' [heavens is plural in Hebrew] is also a technical phrase which indicates the return of the Most High back to Zion as Ruler.

9 Upon a high mountain get up, ye prophets, that bring good tidings unto Zion; lift ye up your voice with strength that bring good tidings to Jerusalem; lift it up, be not afraid, say to the cities of the house of Judah, The kingdom of your God is revealed. ISAIAH 40:9 (Targum of Ben Uziel)

7 How beautiful upon the mountains of the land of Israel are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace, that publisheth salvation, saying to the congregation of Zion, The kingdom of thy God is revealed. ISAIAH 52:7 (Targum of Ben Uziel)

The phrase 'kingdom of Heavens' and 'kingdom of 'Elohim' are synonymous, Heavens is a euphemism for 'Elohim.

For instance compare the following;

Matthew 19:14 14 However, Yeshua said, "Let the children come to me, don't stop them, for the Kingdom of Heaven belongs to such as these."

Mark 10:14 14 However, when Yeshua saw it, he became indignant and said to them, "Let the children come to me, don't stop them, for the Kingdom of God belongs to such as these.

First century technical terms

Posted: Thu May 17, 2018 3:44 pm
by nazarene
...1Co 7:18 Is any man called being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised. Is any called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised.

The apostle Paul uses the term 'uncircumcised' this term was being used in the first century to describe the practice of reversal of circumcision that was used in the time of the maccabees...

1Ma 1:15 And made themselves uncircumcised, and forsook the holy covenant, and joined themselves to the heathen, and were sold to do mischief.

Re: First century technical terms

Posted: Mon Jan 14, 2019 4:30 pm
by nazarene

Mat 17:24 And when they were come to Capernaum, those that received the two drachmas came to Peter and said, Does not your master pay the two drachmas?

The phrase two drachmas is a term for the half shekel requirement;

Exo 30:13 This shall be given by every one that passes among those that are numbered: half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary (a shekel is twenty gerahs); a half shekel shall be the offering to the LORD.

Josephus informs us that two drachmas were used to pay the half shekel requirement;

Antiquities of the Jews 3:193-195 193 Now Moses commanded them to make use of all the utensils, which were more than were necessary for the structure of the tabernacle, for covering the tabernacle itself, the lampstand, and altar of incense, and the other vessels, that they might not be at all harmed when they journeyed, either by the rain, or by the rising of the dust. 194 And when he had gathered the multitude together again, he ordained that they should offer half a shekel for every man, as an oblation to God; 195 which shekel is a piece among the Hebrews, and is equal to four Athenian drachmas.

The Jewish War 7:218 218 He also laid a tribute upon the Jews wherever they were, and enjoined everyone of them to bring two drachmas every year into the Capitol, as they used to pay the same to the temple at Jerusalem. And this was the state of the Jewish affairs at this time.

Re: First century technical terms

Posted: Tue Jan 22, 2019 8:02 am
by nazarene

Rev 2:7 The one who has an ear, hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To the one overcoming, I will give to him to eat of the Tree of Life which is in the midst of the Paradise of God.

The word 'paradise' was a term used for the garden in Eden;

Gen 2:8 And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.

When we compare the above translation from the Hebrew to how the Septuagint renders it we can see that paradise was used instead of garden;

8 Thereafter, God planted a Paradise east of Edem, where He put the man whom he had formed. [Translation from the LXX]

Both Philo and Josephus use the term paradise for garden;

Leg. 1:43 43 XIV. "And God planted a paradise in Eden, in the east: and there he placed the man whom he had formed [Genesis 2:8]:" for he called that divine and heavenly wisdom by many names; and he made it manifest that it had many appellations; for he called it the beginning, and the image, and the sight of God. And now he exhibits the wisdom which is conversant about the things of the earth (as being an imitation of this archetypal wisdom), in the plantation of this Paradise. For let not such impiety ever occupy our thoughts as for us to suppose that God cultivates the land and plants paradises, since if we were to do so, we should be presently raising the question of why he does so: for it could not be that he might provide himself with pleasant places of recreation and pastime, or with amusement.

Antiquities of the Jews 1:37-38 37 Moses says further, that God planted a paradise in the east, flourishing with all sorts of trees; and that among them was the tree of life, and another of knowledge, whereby was to be known what was good and evil; 38 and that when he brought Adam and his wife into this garden, he commanded them to take care of the plants. Now the garden was watered by one river, which ran around the whole earth, and was parted into four parts. And Phison, which denotes a multitude, running into India, makes its exit into the sea, and is by the Greeks called Ganges.

Re: First century technical terms

Posted: Tue Jan 22, 2019 8:27 am
by nazarene

Mat 5:30 `And, if thy right hand doth cause thee to stumble, cut it off, and cast from thee, for it is good to thee that one of thy members may perish, and not thy whole body be cast to gehenna.

The right hand would bring to mind might and security;

Psa 20:6 (20:7) Now know I that the LORD saveth His anointed; He will answer him from His holy heaven with the mighty acts of His saving right hand.

The Jewish War 3:314 314 by whom Cerealis understood that those which still stayed there were very much broken by their misfortunes. So he went up to the mountain, and having placed his forces around the enemy, he, in the first place, exhorted them to take the security of his right hand, and come to terms with him, and thereby save themselves; and assured them that if they would lay down

In his citing of Deuteronomy 8:17 Philo interprets hand, for right hand, and that it indicates strength;

Deu 8:17 that you not say in your heart, My power and the might of my hand have gotten me this wealth.

Sacr. 1:56 56 And Moses reproves the man who looks upon himself as the cause of the good things that have befallen him in this manner, "Say not," says he, "my own might, or the strength of my right hand has acquired me all this power, but remember always the Lord thy God, who giveth thee the might to acquire power." [Deuteronomy 8:17.]

Re: First century technical terms

Posted: Tue Jan 22, 2019 7:10 pm
by nazarene

In 1st Corinthians the apostle Paul uses the term Torah for Isaiah;

1Co 14:21 It has been written in the Law, "By other languages" and "by other lips" "I will speak to this people," "and even so they will not hear" Me, says the Lord.

Isa 28:11 For with stammering lip and other languages, He will speak to this people;

The term Torah can be used for not only the first five books of Mosheh, but also can be applied to the Psalms, as Yeshua shows;

Joh 15:25 But this comes to pass that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause.

Psa 69:4 They who hate me without a cause are more than the hairs of my head; they who would destroy me are mighty, my lying enemies; then I give back what I did not take away.

John 10:34 34 Yeshua answered them, "Isn't it written in your Torah, 'I have said, "You people are Elohim' "?

Psa 82:6 I have said, You are gods, and all of you are sons of the Most High.

The term Torah then can include the first five books of Mosheh, the Prophets and Psalms, so although Torah means instruction, it can also have the inclusive meaning of revelation, the Prophet Daniel informs us that instructions were sent even through the Prophets;

Dan 9:10 We have not obeyed the voice of the Lord our God, to walk in His laws which he set before us by His servants the prophets.

Although late, the following is an example of how rabbinically the Torah included other book[s];

Selah. R. Hiyya b. Abba said in R. Johanan`s [PA2] name: Whence do we learn resurrection from the Torah? From the verse, Thy watchmen shall lift up the voice; with the voice together shall they sing. Not `sang,` but shall sing is written: thus resurrection is derived from the Torah. b.Sanhedrin ch.10.1-2, 90a-107b

Isa 52:8 The voice of your watchmen, they lift the voice together, they sing aloud. For they shall see eye to eye when Jehovah brings back Zion.

Just like the apostle Paul the example given is from the Prophet Isaiah, yet is included in the term Torah.