The Saviour 1900-1905 – Henry Ossawa Tanner

That the Father has a Name is revealed in the Yeshua’s Prayer, <Let your Name be Set-Apart {sanctified}>.
What is that Name? What Name did the Nazarene believe to be uniquely the Eternal’s? How is it to be Set-Apart? The answer lies in the second concept of the Nazarene’s prayer.

As a Jew, Yeshua the Nazarene knew quite well what the Eternal’s Name was. A ‘name ‘ in Hebrew thought a name refers not only to the spoken or literal aspect but also refers to character, honour and authority. Even as a child Yeshua must have been familiar with the story of Mosheh (Moses) and the burning bush. This is an account he later quotes against the Sadducees. This story in Exodus 3:13-15 records Mosheh’s question about the Eternal’s self-designation:

Exodus 3:13-15 
13 And Mosheh said to Elohim, “See, when I come to the children of Yisra’el and say to them, ‘The Elohim of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they say to me, ‘What is His Name?’ what shall I say to them?” 
14 And Elohim said to Mosheh, “I am that which I am.”*And He said, “Thus you shall say to the children of Yisra’el, ‘I am has sent me to you.’ 
*{The Heḇrew text reads: eyeh asher eyeh, the word eyeh being derived from hayah which means to be, to exist, but the Aramaic text here in v. 14 reads: ayah ashar ayah - The Scriptures note}
15 And Elohim said further to Mosheh, “Thus you are to say to the children of Yisra’el, יהוה Elohim of your fathers, the Elohim of Abraham, the Elohim of Yitshaq, and the Elohim of Yaʽaqob, has sent me to you. This is My Name forever, and this is My remembrance to all generations.’ 
The Burning Bush- Harold Copping (1863-1932)

The Elohim of Mosheh was The Absolute Being. The Eternal was not going to change His Name to another.
No one would have to tell Yeshua that in Hebrew the four letters which stand for the Name of Elohim are יהוה.

The only grammatically possible pronunciation, from which all other abbreviations/contractions can be formed, is ‘Yah-weh.’ [Justin J. Van Rensburg 2019 - 'The Hebrew Gospels from Sepharad]

According to the historian Josephus of the First Century, the Jews never pronounced יהוה but substituted it for Lord or Adonai. The original Hebrew was a language which only used consonants and the vowel sounds were memorised just as they are today in Israel. This is something like “bldg”[building] in English. About the year 1,000 AD the Jewish scribes began to add vowel points to indicate pronunciation. These differ a bit when it comes to Yehwah (Genesis 2:4), Yehowah (Genesis 3:14), Yahweh, or, even Yehowih. (Ezekiel 2:4) {Some scholars believe that this was done to further confuse the pronunciation of the Name}.
Having said all this, there are some scholars and experts who maintain that the Name of the Eternal was never lost because it was pronounced at least once a year during the Day of Atonement by the High Priest when he entered in the Holy of Holies.

Who is responsible for this supposed loss of the pronunciation of the Divine Name, if it has indeed been lost? The Jewish scribes never removed the Name as the King James translators did. The Jewish Masoretic scribes tried to preserve the pronunciation in 1,000 AD with the introduction of vowel points.
Scripture shows us that Yeshua pronounced the Sacred Name: 
<I have revealed Your Name to the men whom You gave Me out of the world> John 17:6
< And I have made Your Name known to them, and shall make it known>John 17:26 [see Psalms 22:22]
For more information  see DID MESSIAH SAY THE HEAVENLY NAME?

The Nazarene’s example, without contest, would be premier in this matter of the use of the Divine Name, Yah-weh ( יהוה). 

The Lord’s Prayer-James Tissot (1836-1902)

All the great men of the Hebrew Scriptures used יהוה in their prayers. Men such as Moses, Joshua, David, Elijah, Daniel, Nehemiah, and Jonah. (Numbers 14; Deuteronomy 32, 33; Joshua 7:7-8; Judges 5:31; 2 Samuel 22:29; 1 Kings 18:36-37; 2 Chronicles 6:41; Nehemiah 9:5; Daniel 9:9; Jonah 1:14). 
The Divine Name is of out-most importance . This Tetragram (Four Letters) occurs over 6,000 times in the Tanach (Old Testament). In the Fourth Century before Yeshua when the Greek-speaking Jews under the rule of Alexander the Great began to translate the Hebrew text in what was becoming the international language of common Greek, they came upon some difficulty. There is no way to transliterate the Hebrew יהוה into Greek as it lacks the correct letters to make the translation complete. So, the seventy scribes who produced what is now called the Septuagint (LXX), left the four letters יהוה untranslated. The Jewish Publication Society’s Tanakh [Old Covenant] does something similar at

Exodus) 6:3 [JPS]
3 “And I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as el Shaddai, but I did not make Myself known to them by my name יהוה.
Yeshua in the Synagogue- James Tissot     (1836-1902)

Thus, when reading such Septuagint editions, the Divine Name יהוה would have stuck out clearly when reading.
 At the little synagogue in Nazareth when Yeshua stood up to read Isaiah chapter 61, verse 1, he would have before him: יהוה
Did he pronounce the יהוה or did he respect the Jewish custom and say «ha-‘A-don’» (the [true] LORD) instead? If he had uttered יהוה in that crowded synagogue of Jews, what would have been the reactions to what they considered a violation of the Commandment, <You do not bring the Name of יהוה your Elohim to naught>
? – Exodus 20:7. The initial reaction is recorded in

Luke 4:22 [NEB-New English Bible 1961] 
There was a general stir of admiration; they were surprised that words of such grace should fall from his lips.’ 

This does not seem the reaction of a people upset over a blasphemous use of the Name יהוה. True, a bit later in reaction to further words (not using יהוה) they are ready to stone him, but this seems more for his criticism of them. (Luke 4:23-30)
In addition to this, nowhere else in the Gospels do we ever find the Nazarene criticised, censored, cautioned or condemned for using יהוה either in quotations or everyday speech. Given the frequent and notorious complaints about violations of the Sabbath, it seems unusual there were no similar condemnations for a more serious commandment. (Matthew 12:1-15) Unless the Nazarene respected the Jewish conception of the Commandment and followed their custom. If one argues that this might be the case only in public, then we offer John chapters 13 to 17 as evidence that the Nazarene did not use the Divine Name even in private closed meetings with his Apostles in the upper-room.
The Divine Name first appears in Genesis 2:4 as ‘Yehwah’. Abraham knew the Name as did the other Patriarchs. It is during the life of Moses when Elohim first revealed the meaning of his personal Name. Exodus 3:13-15 records this in the account about the Burning Bush when Moses is on Mount Sinai. In this account, Elohim explains what יהוה means. In Hebrew, this is Eh-yeh’ Asher’ Eh-yeh. It is understood to mean: ‘I AM THE ONE WHO IS.’ (Or, I Am the One Who Exists; I AM THE BEING){the Eternal} Other versions render this:
Rotherham: “I-Will-Become-
Moffatt and Leeser: I-Will-Be-That-I-Will-Be
KJV: I-Am- What-I-Am.

The Jewish Publication Society’s Tanakh has a footnote on this point:
“The name YHWH (traditionally read Adonai “the LORD”) is here associated with the root hayah “to be.”
And, so, The New Brown- Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew-English Lexicon states on page 218:
“But most take it as… the one who is: i.e. the absolute and unchangeable one… the existing, ever-living.”
However, when, over one thousand years later, the Greek-speaking Jews began to translate this from Hebrew they left the Tetragram (יהוה) in its original forms as יהוה in Hebrew. This can be seen in the LXXP of the First Century BC fragment and The Aleppo Codex of the Tenth Century AD in Hebrew. These Jewish translators of Alexander the Great’s period did translate the meaning of the Name. For the Hebrew, they used «ego eimi» ho on which is usually translated: “the One who is.” Also, they rendered יהוה as «ho On» or “the One who is.” This same designation is used by the apostle John in Revelation 1:4, 8; 11:17; 16:5, when he uses the formula for Elohim Almighty: “the One who is and the One who was and the One who is coming.” So, in his own way, John renders the meaning of the Divine Name (יהוה) in Greek even as the Septuagint (LXX) did at Exodus 3:14.
The Nazarene never used this designation «ho On» as a term for Elohim according to the Greek Gospels. He preferred the title, or name, “The Elohim” and “Father”. Overall there is a preference for “The Elohim” («ho theos») with the exception of the Gospel of John where Father is the name of choice, 120 times to “Elohim90 times. The Gospel of Luke is weighted in the other direction. The Gospels of Matthew and Mark favour “Elohim” over “Father.” But, all things considered, Father is Yeshua’s preferred designation for the Supreme Being, The Absolute Elohim.
There is another word used once by the Nazarene in Mark 14:36, a unique occurrence of a tender term for Elohim the Father, «Abba». It is an Aramaic word which was among the first learned by a child and translates roughly to the Latin Papa. It literally means “the Father” or, “my Father”.
The Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Vol 1, pages 614-15 makes these observations:

Abba… a word derived from baby-language… 2. Nowhere in the entire wealth of devotional literature produced by ancient Judaism do we find Abba being used as a way of addressing God. The pious Jew knew too much of the great gap between God and man (Eccelsiastes 5:1) to be free to address God with the familiar word used in everyday family life… Jesus addressed God in his prayers as ‘My Father’. In doing so he made use of the warm, familiar term Abba used in the everyday life of the family… (Luke 11:2 ff.) This means that when Jesus gave his disciples the Lord’s Prayer, he gave them authority to follow him in addressing God as Abba, and so gave them a share in his status as Son… Accordingly, Paul uses in the invocation Abba, dear Father, clear evidence of our adoption through Christ as sons.”

Thus those who pray the Lord’s Prayer, and address Yahweh as Father, must, of necessity, be His children. (Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:6)

That the Divine Name was to be held holy, sanctified or treated with special respect is shown by the use of the word-group “sanctify” over 130 times in the Scriptures. This holiness is first stressed in the Ten Commandments, <You shall not misuse the name of יהוה>. It is this commandment which caused the Jews to refrain from uttering the Sacred Name. They did not use the Name at all, except on the Day of Atonement and only by the High Priest.
One may wonder why the Name of the Eternal, יהוה needs to be “sanctified”? There are two reasons for this. First, the Adversary, the Arch Enemy of the Eternal, יהוה, raised an issue in the Garden of Eden (later highlighted in the book of Job) which called into question the Eternal’s honest dealings with humans. According to Job1:9-11 and Job 2:4, 5 the Adversary inferred that humans only worshipped the Eternal, יהוה for what they could get out of it. This is still a contemporary charge against Believers: that heaven is their only motivation. This was, and still is, an accusation which reproached the Eternal, יהוה and besmirched His name. Scripture is an account how the Eternal purposes to correct this deviation and thus ‘sanctify His great Name.’ (Isaiah 29:23; Ezekiel 36:23)
Secondly,  the Jews had brought great reproach upon the Name of their Elohim יהוה, much the same as historical “Christians” have reproached the name of Messiah during the last 19 centuries. About the Jews’ deviation, Shaul (Paul) writes when he quotes Isaiah,

Romans 2:24
24 For “The Name of Elohim is blasphemed among the gentiles because of you,” as it has been written.
Isaiah 52:5
5 ...My Name is despised all day continually. 

It was as true in Isaiah’s day as it was in Shaul’s, 700 years later and still is today. There was a monumental record of reproach which needed to be punished and corrected. It is very similar to the unholiness heaped on the Eternal’s Name and the name of Messiah throughout the Dark Ages into the Twentieth Century. One cannot find an inquisition, a crusade, a slave trade, a false prophecy, or a war, which did not involve so called ‘Christians’ or so-called worshippers of the Eternal. This very record is what turns most persons away from Messiah and his Elohim (יהוה).
The subject of the sanctification of the Name of the Eternal was not original with the Nazarene. It is a reoccurring theme throughout the Scriptures. In the Book of Ezekiel alone it is mentioned over six dozen times. Ezekiel 36:23 is an example:

Ezekiel 36:23
23 2 “And I shall set apart My great Name, which has been profaned among the gentiles, which you have profaned in their midst. And the gentiles shall know that I am יהוה,” declares the Master יהוה, “when I am set-apart in you before their eyes.

With regard to the reason for judgement on Moses, Numbers 20:12 has יהוה declaring:

Numbers 20:12
12 But יהוה spoke to Mosheh and to Aharon, “Because you did not believe Me, to set Me apart in the eyes of the children of Yisra’el, therefore you do not bring this assembly into the land which I have given them.” 

And, again יהוה warns Israel when He says,

Leviticus 22:2, [JPS]
2 ‘Instruct Aaron and his sons to be scrupulous about the sacred donations that the Israelite people consecrate to Me, lest they profane My holy name.’ 

From these verses, it can be observed that lack of faith and questionable religious sacrifices are ways of failing to sanctify the Eternal’s Name.

In review, then, Yeshua the Nazarene taught about the Eternal, who as the Father, is the same as יהוה of the Hebrew Scriptures. Shaul and the other disciples who wrote after Yeshua do the same thing. There are well over one hundred quotations in the Scriptures where the Name of the Eternal appears in original Hebrew sources. Thus, Elohim the Father has a Name and the Nazarene stresses the need for all of the Eternal children to pray for its sanctification. Nothing in word or deed must be done to make this Name to appear worthless or in any way abused so that others would spit on the Eternal. What we do and how we act reflects on the Name of יהוה. Particularly, a major way to sanctify the Name of the Father is by faith.

“יהוה exists,” is what is implied by the Greek of Exodus 3:14 and Revelation 1:4, «ho On» (the One who is). Yeshua the Nazarene never indulges in any arguments about the existence of the Eternal. He simply states with complete conviction,

John 7:28 
28 He who sent Me is true

One imagines the wry smile and penetrating gaze of the Nazarene if he were asked, “Does יהוה exist?” To the Messiah, the existence of the Eternal is a given. It would almost seem absurd that Yeshua would even consider such a query. However, given our times a few words on this subject of the Eternal’s existence seem in order.
Perhaps the very fact we can ask the question is the strongest proof the Eternal exists. Because, if the Eternal did not exist, then we could not conceive of such a thing, for we would stand as the absolute on this planet — the top of the food chain — and we would not think of anything greater than ourselves. One philosopher put it this way: “God is that of which there is nothing greater.”
Some moderns deny the existence of the Eternal and yet insist there must be life elsewhere in the Universe. For this conviction, they have no proof whatsoever and therefore hold this belief based on faith. Another consideration is the probability of the existence of the Eternal as a 50/50 possibility. Since the only absolute in life is death, there is a 50/50 possibility that the Eternal is involved with any prospects of life after death. These are outstanding odds. Some find it extremely interesting that some scientists and philosophers will argue passionately that there is no evidence for the existence of the Eternal and they as scientists must stick to the evidence; and at the same time, these same thinkers adamantly assert that there has to be life on other planets somewhere in the vast universe, though they have no evidence at all for this belief. Is this their Faith?
Belief in Elohim or gods and spirits was completely natural in recorded history. Indeed, many see evidence which points to monotheism (worship of one Elohim) to have preceded polytheism (worship of many gods) as the Scriptures have it. Lincoln Barnett wrote for Life Magazine (Dec 12, 1955) in The Dawn of Religion:

“Early man could only imagine some all-powerful and supernatural volition behind such ordered phenomena as the daily rising and setting of the sun, the cycle of the seasons and the nightly rotation of the starry celestial sphere. He could only tremble in fear and wonder at the unpredictable paroxysms of the natural world-the sudden rifting of the earth and the blinking scintillation of lightning in the opaque sky. Here surely lay the origin of his belief in the supernatural…
“But early man must have been aware of equally mysterious and alarming occurrences that took place not in the exterior world but within himself. What, for example, could he think of sleep? The difference between sleep and consciousness suggested that there existed within him something which transcended his body, something which could go away and, in dreaming, lead an active life of its own, traveling wondrously through space and time. And finally, death confronted man with the ultimate mystery. When any individual died the vital attributes of his body disappeared-warmth, movement, speech, breath, volition. Where did they go? Since the flesh itself disintegrated, the body could only be a dwelling place for the spirit that inhabited it in life.”

There seems no period when the Eternal did not exist in the minds of people living on this planet. There has never been an atheistic people or nation in recorded history. Only in the last one hundred years has atheism been forced upon whole nations as a political ideology. Interestingly, in recent years when subjugated peoples had their freedom restored, millions openly returned to a public belief in the Eternal. Why is it that by nature, when given their freedom, people will normally want to believe in the Eternal? It is only when political tyranny (or moral choices) forbid open belief in the Eternal that a fearful national majority accept atheism publicly while privately holding to a belief in the Eternal.
It is interesting to ask an atheist or agnostic, “In the last three hundred years who have been recognized among the greatest scientists?” Surely, it is not unfair to list Newton and Einstein as preeminent. Both great thinkers publicly expressed belief in the Eternal. What would an atheist say to set these two august gentlemen straight?
Those propositions which are inferred in the Scriptures for the Eternal’s existence are simple and straightforward arguments:

Isaiah 40:26
 26 Lift up your eyes on high and see. Who has created these?
Romans 1:20
 20 For since the creation of the world His invisible qualities have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made
Hebrews 3:4
 4 For every house is built by someone, but He who built all is Elohim. 

These are arguments based on design. If one finds a piece of stone in the dirt and upon examination, it is obvious this is chipped precisely out of flint to form an arrowhead, it is not too difficult to see design was involved and not mere chance. Though one cannot see the maker of this arrowhead, is it too difficult to reason that it was attached to a shaft and this was propelled by a bow used by an archer who had purpose and will? Where there is design, there is purpose; and where there is purpose, there is intelligence; and where there is intelligence, there is a mind; and where there is a mind, there is a person.
The word “person” with regard to the Eternal does not mean a human or anything of the sort. What Elohim is, well, that is an unknown. It is easier to say what the Eternal is not from a Scriptural view. He is not fleshly or human. The Nazarene put it simply:

John 4:24 
 24  “Elohim is Spirit, and those who worship Him need to worship in spirit and truth.”
Luke 24:39
 39...a spirit does not have flesh and bones...

Was Yeshua“Elohim”?
It is appropriate to raise this question here because many have come to believe Yeshua taught he was Elohim in the flesh. While respecting their view and recognizing them as our Christian brethren, we would politely suggest another view: Yeshua was a complete man, the Son of the Eternal. At no time did Yeshua ever say, “I am Elohim,” though this phrase spoken by the Eternal is found in the Old Covenant.
The Nazarene was well aware of what the Hebrew Scriptures said on the subject of this word, “Elohim,” or “gods.” For example, he must have known Deuteronomy 10:17 said,

Deuteronomy 10:17 
 17 “For יהוה your Elohim is Elohim of mighty ones {gods} and Master of masters {Lord of lords}

From this, he would have known that there were other “gods” over whom יהוה was ‘The God’, and other “lords” over whom יהוה was ‘The Lord’. Yeshua knew and quoted those texts which applied to him as the Messiah. For example, he would have known the Messiah would say to יהוה :

Psalm 89:26
 26 ‘You are my Father, My El {God}

Also, that Messiah would call out at his death, <My El [My God], My El [My God]> (Psalm 22:1; Matthew 27:46) He himself quoted Psalm 110:1,  <יהוה said to my Master> and applied the <my Master> to himself by inference as the son of Dawid (David). (Matthew 22:43; Mark 12:36; Luke 20:42) Yeshua could not be this “Father,” “יהוה,” or “Elohim.

Agony in the Garden

Throughout the Gospels, the Nazarene is seen praying to Elohim: at his baptism, in public, at the Last Passover, in the garden of agony and at his execution. (Luke 3:21; John 12:27, 28; 17:1-26; Luke 22:40-46; Matthew 27:46. Compare Hebrews 5:7). Yeshua used expressions that showed he considered himself lesser than Eloah: as His servant, the Sent One. Yeshua says,

John 14:28
28 ‘My Father is greater than I.’

The Nazarene exhibited limitations unknown to Elohim: hunger, tiredness and lack of knowledge. (John 14:6 and Isaiah 40:28; Matthew 4:2; 21:18; 24:36; Mark 13:32) Also, he is shown being tempted, something that cannot happen to Elohim. (Matthew 4:1 and James 1:13). Further, twice we have the Nazarene’s own answers to the questions of whether he was Elohim or considered himself equal to Elohim. Both, interestingly, in the Gospel of John. In John 5:18-47 there is a discussion between Messiah and the Jews in which they desire to kill Yeshua because, as John puts it, ‘(Yeshua) called יהוה his own Father, making himself equal to יהוה .’ Yeshua has full opportunity to clarify the matter. The answer Yeshua gave makes it easy to understand he did not consider himself Eloah or Eloah’s equal:

John 5:19
 19 Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son is able to do none at all by Himself

May we suggest a paraphrase: “The Son is not the First Cause of anything.” It would be impossible to say, “Elohim can do nothing of Himself,” otherwise the universe would have no beginning, for Elohim would be incapable of being the First Cause. Yeshua continues in verse 30,

John 5:30
 30 Of Myself I am unable to do any matter

Such words could never come from Elohim. Yeshua the Messiah is no Originator or Prime Mover.
Again and again in this section, as well as the three chapters which follow in John, the Nazarene simply states:

John 8:28
 28 I do none at all of Myself, but as My Father taught Me

Yeshua made it clear that when he speaks of the Father he means Elohim. In John 7:16, 17, he says:

John 7:16-17
16 יהושע answered them and said, “My teaching is not Mine, but His who sent Me.
17 “If anyone desires to do His desire, he shall know concerning the teaching, whether it is from Elohim, or whether I speak from Myself. 

The Nazarene’s answer to the Jews regarding any equality with Elohim is, simply, “No.”
On another occasion, the secularized Jews accused Yeshua,

John 10:33
33 We do not stone You for a good work, but for blasphemy, and because You, being a Man, make Yourself Elohim.

The Nazarene has another opportunity to make the truth clear: “Are you God?” He gives his answer in verses 34-36,

John 10:34-36
34  “Is it not written in your own Torah, ‘I said, “You are elohim” ’? 
35 “If He called them elohim, to whom the word of Elohim came – and it is impossible for the Scripture to be broken – 
36 do you say of Him whom the Father set apart and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of Elohim’?  

What better way could Yeshua choose in answering their false charge of being Elohim , or a god, by effectively saying, “No!”
Some will ask about the Trinity but many scholars acknowledge: the Scriptures do not mention or teach a Trinity. The idea of the Trinity developed in the centuries following the death of Yeshua’s apostles. The Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Volume 2, page 84 agrees with this statement:
“The NT does not contain the developed doctrine of the Trinity. The Bible lacks the express declaration that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are of equal essence and therein an equal sense God himself… It also lacks such terms as trinity.”
It is left to the reader to examine any secular or religious encyclopaedia or commentary on this subject for the details. A rebuttal of the precise arguments and so-called “proof texts” for a trinitarian view of Elohim similar to that held by the Egyptians and Greeks is left to another time.

Simply put, who did he say he was? The Gospels have him, in one form or another, teaching he was the 
(Matthew 16:20, 23; 26:63, 64; John 4:25, 26; 10:36) or the Messiah (Psalm 2:1; Luke 22:67) or the Son of Man. (Daniel 7:13; John 6:62; Ephesians 4:9, 10) It is left to the last apostolic writer, John, to explain in Greek terms the details of the Nazarene’s pre-existence. In his Last Passover prayer, Yeshua spoke to his Eloah:

Messiah and His Disciples enter the Garden
John 17:4-5 (compare John 6:62) [NCMM Paraphrase]
 4 I glorified You upon the earth, completing the work that You have given to me so that I might do it. 
 5 So now, You glorify me next to Yourself with the glory that I possessed next to You before the Cosmos existed.” [Proverbs 8:22, 30 LXX-Septuagint]

This is nearly identical to John’s own commentary in the Prologue to his Gospel:

John 1:1-3, 10 [NCMM]
“In [the] beginning the Word {dabar} existed, and the Word faced toward 'The God' {Elohim}, and the Word was divine. 
2 This same one was facing toward 'The God' {Elohim} in the beginning. 
3 By means of him everything came into existence and without him nothing came into existence 
10 The social order of humanity came into existence by his agency."    

With the use of the Greek «logos» John addresses himself to that Platonic world of the Hellenists. A modern rendering of this designation, “the logos,” might be “Spokesman” or “Mouthpiece.” It is similar in idea to the relationship between Moses and Aaron when before Pharaoh (Exodus 4:15; 7:1) where Moses became “god” and Aaron his “spokesman.” It is interesting to note in the Jewish Greek LXX [Septuagint] the same «pros ton theon» of  John 1:1 is used. That is someone facing toward another, facing a superior to receive instructions.
Clearly, in John 1:1 the logos was with The God (Elohim)(pros ton theon, Exodus 4:16) and John states the universe came into existence through him (Greek, «di», «dia», 1 Corinthians 8:6) so it is impossible to conclude the logos was Elohim Almighty or the Father. What was the status of the logos before his human existence? “God,” or we might say “god” or “divine” as it is literally in the Greek lower case. This is “god” either representationally as in the case of Moses with Aaron (Exodus 4:15; 7:1); or, “god” qualitatively, as in one of the “gods” of whom יהוה is “Elohim.” (Deuteronomy 10:17)
This linguistic confusion is brought about because modern English uses the old Anglo-Saxon word “god” to first mean the Supreme Being. This is the proper result of over a 1,000 years of Christian monotheism in the English language. The word “god” in English literally comes from a root meaning “to call for help.” But, in Hebrew and Greek, the words from which “god” is derived have degrees of meaning. The Greek «theos» is from a root for run or move for the Greeks thought the gods were from the moving stars. In Hebrew Scripture (as Yeshua already taught in John 10:34) the word-group elohim (god) is applied to men, angels and idols. In its absolute and most heightened sense “God” means the Almighty Being, the Prime Mover. And, Yeshua the Messiah, the Nazarene is His Son.
Shaul makes it clear in his quotation of Psalm 8:5 at Hebrews 2:8, 9 that the Son was “less than god (elohim)” in the Hebrew, and “less than angels” in the Greek text when he walked to beaches of Galilee.

Nearly two dozen times an expression indicating the glorified Master Yeshua has his own Eloah appears in the Scriptures in forms like “the Eloah of our Master” or “my Eloah”. (Ephesians 1:3, 17; Revelation 3:12) This is never reversed where יהוה or the Father addresses Yeshua as his Eloah.

In the book Revelation or Apocalypse, the Risen Messiah describes himself,

Revelation 3:14
 14 the Beginning of the creation of Elohim

This is similar to Shaul’s own view:

Colossians 1:15-16
15 who is the likeness of the invisible Elohim, the first-born of all creation.
16 Because in Him were created all that are in the heavens and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or rulerships or principalities or authorities – all have been created through Him and for Him. 

In Hebrews 1:1-4, Paul writes his own Prologue which John must have known when he penned his at John 1:1-3. However, unlike John, Paul addresses a Hebrew audience in describing this Agent of Creation:

Hebrews 1:1-4
1 Elohim, having of old spoken in many portions and many ways to the fathers by the prophets, 
2 has in these last days spoken to us by the Son, whom He has appointed heir of all, through whom also He made the ages,
3 who being the brightness of the esteem and the exact representation of His substance, and sustaining all by the word of His power, having made a cleansing of our sins through Himself, sat down at the right hand of the Greatness on high, 
4 having become so much better than the messengers {angels}, as He has inherited a more excellent Name than them. 

All of these verses which describe the pre-existence of Yahshua the Messiah as the creative Agent, the Word, agree with the Nazarene’s own prayer

John 17:5
 5 And now, esteem {glorify} Me with Yourself, Father, with the esteem {glory} which I had with You before the world was. 

They all either echo or are drawn from the words of Proverbs

Proverbs 8:22-23, 27, 30
 22 יהוה possessed {created} me, The beginning of His way, As the first of His works of old. 
 23 I was set up ages ago, at the first, Before the earth ever was. 
 27 “When He prepared the heavens, I was there, When He decreed a vault on the face of the deep,
 30 Then I was beside Him, a master workman, And I was His delight, day by day Rejoicing before Him all the time, 

It is most likely this logos (as the personification of Wisdom — Colossians 2:3) was the one to whom Eloah spoke in the book Genesis

26 Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness

When the glorified Yeshua the Messiah appeared to Shaul on the Damascus road he had full opportunity to declare himself Elohim, but he does not, in the words:

Acts 9:5
 5 I am Yeshua of Natzaret, whom you persecute.
Acts 26:15-18
15I am Yeshua of Natzaret, whom you are persecuting.
16 And He said to me: Stand upon your feet, for because of this I have appeared to you:
to ordain you a servant, and a witness; that you have seen Me, and of the future, that you
will, see Me.
17 And I will deliver you from the people of Judea, and from other people to whom I
send you:
18 That you should open their eyes, so that they should turn from a dark place to the
light, and from the authority of HaSatan, toward Eloah, and they should receive remission  of sins and a portion with the Set-Apart-Ones by trust, which is in Me.

Finally, let us review a rendering of modern scholarship from one of the oldest preserved texts of John

John 1:18 [Aramaic English New Testment - AENT]
 18  Man has not ever seen Elohim. The Only Begotten of Elohim, he who is in the bosom of his Father, he has declared him.

In this manuscript, this verse in Greek is «ho monogenes theos» or “the only begotten god.” This is a way of saying in a modern paraphrase, “the only one genetically related to the Father.” So, in this verse, there are two “gods” [elohim]:
a) the invisible Elohim [יהוה]; and,
b) the only-begotten god [Yahshua].
This is no contradiction to monotheism within the framework of the Hebrew and Greek understandings. Yahshua the Nazarene and all other “true worshippers” worship only one true Elohim. (John 4:22-24; 17:3; and compare 1 Corinthians 8:4, 5)

In the Second Nazarene Principle regarding the Name of Elohim we have seen how the Nazarene prays for this Name to be sanctified. This “Name” is not only the self-designation of Elohim, Yahweh, but also the character, reputation and attributes of the Father himself. Faith sanctifies the Name of Elohim.
We have also examined what the Scriptures say about the relationship between Elohim the Father and His Son. The simple truth of the Scriptures: there is “one true Elohim” (John 17:3) who has “a Son” (Hebrews 1:2) and this “only-begotten god” (John 1:1; 1:18) acted as the agent of creation (Hebrews 1:3; Colossians 1:15-17; John 1:3, 10); then came to earth to become a true “man” (Romans 5:14; Philippians 2:7, 8; John 1:14),Yeshua the Messiah, the Nazarene. While he walked the earth he was a perfect man who denied he was equal to Elohim. (John 5:19-46; 10:30-33; 14:28) Upon his return to heaven, Yeshua still had a Elohim he served, the Father (Revelation 3:12) to whom he remains in subjection (1 Corinthians 11:3; 15:28) as his own Head.


Unless otherwise noted, all Scriptures are from The Scriptures,
Copyright by Institute for Scripture Research.
Used by permission