ZAKKUR STELE The Scriptures in Archaeology

By Rama – Own work, CC BY-SA 2.0 fr, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2967499

The Stele of Zakkur (or Zakir), a basalt slab 62 centimetres (24 inches) high and 13 centimetres (5.1 inches) wide, is a royal stele of King Zakkur of Hamath and Luhuti (or Lu’aš) in the province Nuhašše of Syria, who ruled around 785 BC.
The Stele of Zakkur mentions King Hazael, his son Ben-Hadad and a city called Hamath. These names also appear in the Scriptures 

1) Aramaean king Hazael (842-805 before Yeshua)

 1 Kings 19:15
And יהוה said to him {Eliyahu}, “Go, return on your way to the Wilderness of Damascus. And you shall go in and anoint Ḥaza’el as sovereign over Aram {Syria}. 

2) Ben-hadad [III] (Mari) the son of Hazael
(805-770 before Yeshua)

2 Kings 13:24
And Haza'el sovereign of Aram died. And Ben-Hadad his son reigned in his place. 

3) Hamath (means fortress), the principal city of upper Syria, situated in the valley of the Orontes.

2Ki 14:25 
He restored the border of Yisra’el from the entrance of Hamath to the Sea of the Arabah, according to the word of יהוה Elohim of Yisra’el, which He had spoken through His servant Yonah son of Amittai, the prophet who was from Gath Hepher

Hamath is also mentioned in Numbers 13:21; 34:38; Joshua 13:5; Judges 3:3; 2 Samuel 8:9;
1Kings 8:65; 2Kings 14:28;  17:24, 30; 18:34;
19:13; 23:33; 25:21; 1 Chronicles 13:5; 18:3, 9;
2 Chronicles 7:8; 8:3, 4; Isaiah 10:9; 11:11; 36:19; 37:13; Jeremiah 39:5; 49:23; 52:9, 27; Ezekiel 47:15, 16, 17, 20; Ezekiel 48:1; Amos 6:2, 14; Zechariah 9:2.

Date created: Though the date of the stele is debated (dates range from 805 to 775 before Yeshua) [Prof. Scott B. Noegel]
Date Discovered: 1903
Discoverer: Henri Pognon [French Archaeo-Assyriologist]
Location: Tell Afis, Syria
Present Location: Musée du Louvre, Paris
Language: Aramaic
Translation :
Title (A line 1)
The stele [located in Apish] which Zakkur [Zakir], a king of Hamath and Luʿash, set up for El-wer [his god]
Record of divine rescue (A lines 1–17)
I am Zakkur, king of Hamath and Luʿash. I was a humble  but Baʿlshamayn [my other god] [raised] me and stood beside me, and Baʿlshamayn made me king over Hazrach.
Then Ben-Hadad [III], son of Hazael, king of Aram, united against me s[even]teen kings: Ben-Hadad [III] and his army, Bar-Gush and his army, the king of Que and his army, the king of ʿAmuq and his army, the king of Gurgum and his army, the king of Samʾal and his army, the king of Meliz and his army [ ] seven[teen], they and their armies. All these kings laid siege to Hazrach. They raised a wall higher than the wall of Hazrach, they dug a ditch deeper than [its] ditch. Now I raised my hands to Baʿlshamayn and Baʿlshamayn answered me. Baʿlshamayn [spoke] to me through seers and diviners. Baʿlshamayn said to me, “Do not be afraid! Since I have made [you king, I will stand] beside you. I will save you from all [these kings who] have besieged you.” [Baʿlsha-mayn] also said to [me, “] all these kings who have [besieged you ] and this wall [ ].”
Building inscription (B lines 1–15)
[ ] Hazrach [ ] for chariot [and] horseman [ ] its king within it (?). I [built] Hazrach and added [to it] all [ ] defenses. [ ] and I put x x[ ] x x[ ] forts on every side. [I] built shrines in a[ll] my [land?]. I built [ ]x Apish and [ ] the house [ ] and I set up this monument before [El-wer] and w[rote on] it my achi[evements].
Curses (B lines 16–28, C 1, 2)
[In future who]ever removes from this monument wha[t Zakkur king of Hamath [and Lu‘ash] has [accomplished] and who[ever re]moves this monument from [befo]re El-wer and takes it away fr[om] its [place], or whoever throws it in [ ] x [ ] x [ May Baʿlshamayn and El[-wer ] and Shamash and Shahar [ ] and the gods of heav[en and the god]s of earth and Ba ʿlX[ ] x and x [ ] x x [ ] (C) [ ] the name of Zakkur and the name of [ ].
Translation adapted from COS 2.35, Alan Millard, p155, 2000 AD
Sources: Steve Rudd; Prof. Scott B. Noege; biblehub.com; wikipedia

 

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