What Day Is Our Blessed Sabbath? Part One by Reuven Ben Gershom
The best way to answer this is let the Word of YaHVaH Elohim, and the Words
of our beloved Messiah and His faithful Apostles be clearly revealed in this study!
Beloved reader, you have obviously come to this page because you are interested in this subject for one reason or another. I do pray in the blessed Name of Messiah Yahushua’s wonderful and saving Name that you will be richly blessed reading this study, and that you will find just what you are seeking and that it will make you stronger in faith! I am well aware that it is quite a lengthy study but be assured, it will be worth it! Why not print it out and read it at your leisure and do so prayerfully and ask our Heavenly Father in Messiah’s Name to give you understanding, but above all discernment for that is so important whenever reading anything, as it will allow you to sort out that which is right and wrong!
Although I may have another study online regarding this same subject, but I was led to place before you one of the most comprehensive studies on one of the most blessed days that YaHVaH Elohim gave all mankind. You will find that there is so much more to this wonderful subject than most people in the church can even begin to realise! For this subject as the heading has already shown you, has to do with the blessed Sabbath Day, which just happens to be the Fourth of the Ten Commandments, which sadly the greater church seem to have done away with! And believe it or not that has everything to do with …. whether or not you really know the true Messiah?
I do wish to ensure all readers that we are not related in any shape or form to any particular well known christian church organisation, such as the Seventh Day Adventist’s etc, or any other church body, for we are part of the original Apostolic Ekklesia and its teachings and we are known as “The “Little Flock” of the faithful in Messiah Yahushua.” (Lukas – Luke 12:32). Neither are we related to any of the traditional Jewish Messianic ministries, that takes much of its teachings from man-made traditions, etc, which Shaul – Paul fought against, as we do, therefore we remain totally Scripturally based!
Friends, really knowing Him will directly affect you inheriting an everlasting life in His coming Kingdom. Remember what our blessed Messiah and Saviour warned us about;
“If those days had not been cut short, no one would survive, but for the sake of the elect (the faithful) those days will be shortened. At that time if anyone says to you, ‘Look, here is the messiah or, ‘There he is! do not believe it. For false messiah’s and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and miracles to deceive even the elect, if that were possible. See, I have told you ahead of time.” Mattityahu - Matthew 24:22-25.
As we have seen prophecy fulfilled in these days and since World War I and II we know that we are very much heading towards, or even are in the “The Latter Days.” This present age of man’s rule is under the influence of Ha Satan, the adversary. It is vitally important that we must consider whether if we are really obeying YaHVaH our blessed Elohim who has given us life and breath. For those who have accepted Yahushua The Messiah as taught in the Brit Chadashah, the New Covenant will know that an “empty faith” is just NOT enough!
In Yahushua’s concluding remarks during His message on the Mount, He stated;
“Not everyone who says to me, ‘Master, Master’ will enter the Kingdom of Heaven, but only he who does the will of My Father who is in Heaven.” Mattityahu - Matthew 7:21.
Remember in the Word when He asked, “But why do you call Me ‘‘Master, Master’ and do not do the things which I say?” (Lukas - Luke 6:46). And during a heated discussion with the Pharisees, Yahushua quoted Yeshayahu – Isaiah’s prophecy, saying;
“He replied, ‘Isaiah was right when he prophesied about you hypocrites; as it is written: ‘These people honour Me with their lips, but their hearts are far from Me. They worship Me in vain; their teachings are but rules taught by men.’” Markus - Mark 7:6-7.
Think about that! Yahushua clearly stated that it is possible to worship Elohim, yet worship Him IN VAIN by following the teachings of men! Then Yahushua replied to these hypocrites;
“You have a fine way of setting aside the commands of Elohim in order to observe your own traditions!” Markus - Mark 7:9.
Obviously, when the traditions of men conflict with the commandments of Elohim, we will face massive consequences according to our Saviour Yahushua The Messiah!
Beloved, the biggest problem of those who are part of the greater church, and I mean generally most churches, be they protestant, or Roman catholic, the vast majority worship on “the day of the venerable SUN” (Constantine’s “Blue Law” 321 AD) and they all stand condemned by the Almighty, and sadly you are not even aware of this. Emperor Constantine was a devout worshipper of the sun goddess until the day he died, and that is why he ensured the law had to read “the venerable Sun.” Thus we have SUNday, and for catholic’s on the altar stands the host in a stand with the host in the middle behind glass and it is surrounded by gold sun-like rays, for it represents not the Son, but the Sun goddess!
The truth is that most seem to be quite happy to keep their Sunday, but thankfully and praise be to Elohim, there are some faithful ones who do uphold the Sanctified and the true Sabbath day that Scripturally commences on the Friday evening and it continues through all day Saturday, being the Seventh day, until around 6PM, and this is the Sabbath that Elohim made Sanctified! By keeping it, or not will directly affect whether or not you will be granted eternal life in the Kingdom of Elohim. Did you know that keeping the true Sabbath is, and it has always been a special “test” commandment in Elohim's sight?
2… Question - Which Day Is the Scriptural Sabbath?
Yahushua our beloved Messiah taught us the following;
“Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of Elohim.” Lukas - Luke 4:4.
Yahushua also made it clear that the Word of Elohim does NOT contradict itself and please remember at that time there was NO New Covenant, only the Tanach, the Old Covenant. He showed that the teaching of Scripture is consistent. For Yahushua said, "the Scripture CANNOT be broken" (Yochanan - John 10:35).
Shaul - Paul of Tarsus expanded on this theme, saying;
“All Scripture is given by inspiration of Elohim, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of Elohim may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.” 2 Timotheos - 2 Timothy 3:16-17.
If you are willing to BELIEVE these inspired statements, then you will have no problem understanding this vital subject. For the Scriptures teaches us about Elohim’s true and only Sabbath day from Genesis to Revelation. In fact, it is one of the clearest and most easily understood subjects in the entire Word of Elohim; that is if you just prayerfully and honestly look at the facts and are not fearful about “what other people think.” Remember that in Yahushua’s day many of the religious leaders knew that He was the Messiah, but they would not confess Him for this reason: “For they loved the praise of men more than the praise of Elohim” (Yochanan - John 12:43).
Thus what have we really learned from all this is; It is vital to place ALL OUR FAITH IN THE WORD OF THE ALMIGHTY, and NOT in the words and the traditions of men!
Do you have the faith and courage to do what YaHVaH Elohim, blessed be His Sanctified Name, clearly commands, regardless of what others think?
OK - Let’s have some Proof about the Seventh Day Sabbath:
NOW, let's get down to some very clear and absolute PROOF regarding the true Sabbath of our beloved Elohim.
For a start, let us assume that you were beginning your search for the true Sabbath stranded on a desert island and that the only written material that you managed to save from a shipwreck was a copy of the Scriptures, as well as a calendar, which was handy, for you could keep count of the days you were there!
As you were reading the Word, one day you came across the subject of the Sabbath being on the Seventh Day, and you thought, well let me look into this, and you began your search with a completely open and an objective mind. As you commenced reading the Word you would have read the word Sabbath over and over again, first in Genesis chapter 2, however, you may have read it there, it did not use the word Sabbath but rather the words “rest” or “rested.” I will cover this word a little later, not just at this moment!
“And on the Seventh Day Elohim ended His work which He had made; and He rested on the Seventh Day from all His work which He had made. And Elohim blessed the Seventh Day, and sanctified it: because that in it He had rested from all His work which Elohim created and made.” Bereshis – Genesis 2:2-3.
YHVH said to Moshe, ‘Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘These are My appointed feasts, the appointed feasts of YHVH, which you are to proclaim as sacred assemblies. There are six days when you may work, but the Seventh Day is a Sabbath of rest, a day of sacred assembly. You are not to do any work; wherever you live, it is a Sabbath to YHVH.” Vayikra - Leviticus 23:1-3.
Having read these verses and there are many to confirm these in the New Covenant, we should ask - which day do we HAVE to keep after such an objective study?
Sunday? … Certainly NOT!
If we carefully read the blessed Word of our Heavenly Father we will discover that it never commands anyone to observe Sunday as a weekly day of worship or as a Sabbath, a day of rest as many christian denominations do! Believe it or not we are actually instructed to work on what is now called by a pagan name “SUNday day. We need to understand that it was the Roman Emperor Constantine who actually instituted SUNday as the new day of worship, which was really a bit rich, for he himself was a Sun god worshipper to the day he died, according to history and the church of Rome archives!
Here are the details confirming this!
When Emperor Constantine I, a pagan sun-worshipper came to power in 313 A.D., he formally legalized a new sect of “christianity,” which was a mix of paganism, that combined images and statues together with the worship of Iesous, and not the Messiah of the Word whose Name is Yahushua, which all the faithful up to then where worshipping! The Iesous sect of “christianity” was originally founded in Rome during the days of the Apostles by a man from Samaria who was not only a sorcerer but had been a Babylonian priest. In his region he had done many tricks or miracles, and he was considered as a god by the Samaritan’s. However, he became fascinated by Ya’akov’s miracles, more than his message, but he converted and was immersed, but a row ensued between him and Shime’on – Peter as recorded in Acts chapter 8. This man, Simon Magnus went to Rome and commenced the new church, and became the first Bishop of Rome. He is responsible for the name change of our Saviour, the name Christos, which came from the god “Chrestos” the same goes for the word Christian! Already, the day of worship was being changed to the first day unofficially, but later it became more and more popular.
It was Constantine who officially and legally enforced the SUNday law with his infamous SUNday enforcement “Blue Law” that was made law on March 7, 321 A.D., and it reads as follows:
“On the venerable Day of the SUN let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed.” (Codex Justinianus 3.12.3).
The Roman Papacy officially confirmed SUNday law as The Council of Laodicea in 364 A.D, and we need to note that the council was ruled over by, no other than Constantine. The Council decreed:
“Christians shall not Judaize and be idle on Saturday, but shall work on that day; but the Lord’s day they shall especially honour, and as being Christians, shall do no work on that day. If, however, they are found Judaizing (meaning to keeping the Sabbath as many true believe still continued to do), they shall be shut out (put to death) from Christ.” (Strand, op. cit., citing Charles J. Hefele, A History of the Councils of the Church, 2 (Edinburgh, 1876) 316).
Roman Catholic Cardinal Gibbons freely admits, “You may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we [the Catholic Church] never sanctify.” (Faith of Our Fathers, 92nd ed., p. 89).
As I have already stated earlier the Sabbath, as do the “Feasts of YHVH” Leviticus chapter 23, commence on a Friday at *sunset to Saturday sunset, and this was observed by all of Elohim's and Messiah’s faithful servants in both Old and New Covenant times. And this same seventh-day Sabbath will continue to be observed by the faithful in Messiah Yahushua on this earth after His second coming and during the Millennium reign of Messiah! See the Scripture from Revelations below!
*A Note: “Sunset to Sunset” is based on the Scriptural calendar day. For Elohim said: “And there was evening, and there was morning, the first day.” Bereshis - Genesis 1:5.
“I saw thrones on which were seated those who had been given authority to judge. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony for Yahushua and because of the word of Elohim. They had not worshiped the beast or his image and had not received his mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life and reigned with Messiah a thousand years. (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended.) This is the first resurrection. Blessed and Sanctified are those who have part in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over them, but they will be priests of Elohim and of Messiah and will reign with Him for a thousand years.” Revelations 20:4-6.
Notice the wonderful teaching our beloved Yahushua gave us in Markus - Mark 2:23-28, where he allowed His Apostles to pluck heads of grain to eat as they walked through grain fields on the Sabbath day. He was challenged on this point by the Pharisees, who by the way had added hundreds of additional laws to just “Three Laws” that YHVH Elohim had given Israel for the Sabbath! Yet, men and their legalistic ways managed to stretch these into many laws of their own making, which became tradition. Thus they dared to challenge Yahushua with all sorts of “do’s and don’ts” regarding the Sabbath with the laws of their making. But Yahushua just said;
“The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. So the Son of Man is Master even of the Sabbath.” Markus - Mark 2:27-28.
Our blessed Messiah did not say that the Sabbath was made just for the people of Israel, no, He said that it was “made for man.” In addition, beloved, take very clear note, our Messiah said “the Sabbath” (not that pagan day, being the day of the goddess Ishtar) No, the Seventh Day is the day that our Redeemer is the “Master of the Sabbath”!
Yahushua did not give the slightest hint about doing away with the Sabbath commandment. Rather, He clearly showed both here and in the verses that follow, how to continue and keep the Sabbath in a more meaningful way. Again, Yahushua said that the Sabbath was “made for man” and we now know that it was kept LONG BEFORE Israel was even established.
Many have said to me, “But this law was given at Mount Sinai to the Israelites, thus it was only for the Jews!” It is important to note, that there were other laws given around the same time, such as laws regarding the clean and unclean animals, which became the Kosher (fit to eat) laws. However, even before the flood, when no meat was eaten, after the flood our Heavenly Father said to Noach;
“*All moving thing that lives shall be food (meat) for you. I have given you all things, even as the green herbs. But you shall not eat flesh with its lifeblood (meaning - still alive).” Bereshis - Genesis 9:3-4.
*All in Hebrew = “Kol” would mean “the whole.” Although many Scriptures use the word “every” which is not the correct word in its context!
Thus, after the flood we have learned that man could now eat meat, however, even before this they already knew what was “clean and unclean,” for Elohim had already taught man long before the time of Noach for he would have received this as it would have been handed down!
Therefore we might say; well all that is only for the Israelites, for it commenced at Sinai! But, what if this was something that was well known long before Avraham, Yitzchak and Ya’akov (Abraham, Isaac and Jacob)? Thus before Jacob received the title Israel? But let us now look at Bereshis – Genesis 7:2-3 & verses 7-9.
“You shall take with you seven each of every clean animal, a male and his female; two each of animals that are unclean, a male and his female … So Noach, with his sons, his wife, and his sons’ wives, went into the ark because of the waters of the flood. Of clean animals, of animals that are unclean, of birds, and of everything that creeps on the earth, two by two they went into the ark to Noach, male and female, as Elohim had commanded Noach.”
The question is simply this, how did Noach know about the clean and unclean animals, unless the Almighty had not already told men about these things earlier and prepared them before they even commenced the eating of meat! It was just the same with the Sabbath, for back in Noach’s day and long before, right back to the days of Adam and Eve! The reason that YaHVaH Elohim, blessed be His Sanctified Name, had given certain of the older laws at Sinai again, the reason being, because so many of Israel had gone astray whilst they were in Egypt and had even worshipped Egyptian gods and they had forgotten the Elohim of their father’s, their ways and their laws. Thus Elohim set all the previous as well as certain new laws before them at Sinai!
At this point, let us look at the inspired account of when Elohim made mankind and subsequently gave man the Sabbath. In Bereshis - Genesis 1:1 we read, “In the beginning Elohim created the heavens and the earth.” This original commencement of the creation may have been a very long time ago. The next verse shows that the earth came to a state of chaos and waste. And the succeeding verses describe how Elohim reformed our planet about 6,000 years ago and created the origins of the plant and animal life forms that presently inhabit it. Now notice that verse 26 states:
“Then Elohim said, ‘Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.’” Bereshis – Genesis 1:26.
Thus as we have read mankind was created in Elohim’s “image,” meaning that we were given “DOMINION” or RULE over all the rest of His creation. But the question arises, how was man to keep in contact with his Creator?
Bereshis - Genesis chapter 2 provides us with the answer;
“And on the Seventh Day Elohim ended His work which He had made; and He rested (Hebrew = Shabbat) on the Seventh Day from all His work which He had made. And Elohim blessed the Seventh Day, and sanctified it: because in it He had rested (Shabbat) from all His work which Elohim created and made.” Bereshis – Genesis 2:2-3.
Did you notice that the Word said; “Elohim ended (or completed) His work,” having created the heavens and the earth and all that is therein, “and He rested on the Seventh Day.” The word “Sabbath” is derived from the Hebrew word “Shabbat,” which literally means “rest” or “cessation.” Blessed be YaHVaH Elohim for He created the Sabbath by resting on this Seventh Day and ceasing from creating material things. And He “blessed” and “sanctified” this day that has been set apart for Sanctified use and it has to be this wonderful and special day and it can be no other!
By blessing and sanctifying the Seventh Day Sabbath, Elohim showed that His presence is only ON this day in a very special way. For out of all the days of the week, this one the only day that points to Him in a unique way as being the One and true Elohim, the One who created and now Governs the entire universe!
3… Why is Sunday not in the New Covenant?
The truth is beloved, that the word “Sunday” does not even appear in any of the literal Bible translations. We do find the phrase “first day of the week” in the New Covenant, but this occurs just eight times. Five of those references (Mattityahu- Matthew 28:1; Markus - Mark 16:1-2; Markus - Mark 16:9; Lukas - Luke 24:1; Yochanan - John 20:1) and they describe Mary Magdalene and others coming to the tomb well AFTER our blessed Messiah's resurrection. As we prove in another study, Yahushua was not resurrected on a Sunday morning (see the link at the bottom of the page). Therefore, those five references in regard to the first day have absolutely nothing to do with observing the Sabbath, or the day of Yahushua’s resurrection!
Let us turn to Yochanan - John 20:19 where it states the following;
“On the evening of that first day of the week, when the disciples were together, with the doors locked for fear of the Judeans, Yahushua came and stood among them and said, ‘Peace be with you!’”
We need to understand that this was not a worship meeting celebrating the resurrection; for the Scriptures clearly tells us that until they saw Him, they did NOT believe that Messiah had risen! (Markus - Mark 16:14; Lukas - Luke 24:27-41).
The book of Acts recounts the development of doctrine and practice in the early faithful, which was called in the Greek “Ekklesia.” Yet the first day of the week is mentioned only once, in Acts 20:7-12.
“Now on the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Shaul - Paul, ready to depart the next day, spoke to them and continued his message until midnight.” Verse 7.
Obviously Shaul - Paul was present for a one-time farewell gathering and to have a meal, thus this was not a regular worship service. We need to understand that in the Middle East and also in Greece and other Mediterranean lands the words to “break bread” is a simple little phrase used to this very day, that simply means “to have a meal!” Often when I visit these lands and meet someone, be it in the dessert or a village, I will be asked if I will join them to “break bread” and I will join them and dine, or just have some tea with a light snack, pending on the time of day. But it has nothing to do with what churches think as being “communion.”
Now, once we fully understand that they were living in Scriptural days and that the day commenced and concluded - sunset to sunset, we can see that from around 6PM to what we call midnight is just the first part of “the first day” or what we call a “Saturday” a day that is really named after the god of “Saturn.” This “first day” gathering was thus a Saturday evening event! And then at sunrise on SUNday morning, Shaul - Paul began his hard journey being a 20-mile walk according Verses 11-14. Now if Shaul thought that Sunday was a day of worship or a Sabbath he certainly would not be hiking on a 20-mile journey!
In 1 Corinthians chapter 16, the Apostle Shaul requested:
“On the first day of the week let each one of you lay something aside, storing up as he may prosper, that there be no collections when I come.” 1 Corinthians 16:2.
Be assured that this is no endorsement of Sunday worship. Notice that this practice was meant to stop when Shaul arrived in Corinth! And notice that these verses say nothing about gathering for a weekly worship service to do this collection. This was not a collection of money, but of food to assist the poor in Jerusalem, suffering from drought and famine (cf. Romans 15:25-28). Until Shaul's arrival, each individual was asked to “store up” his contributions in his home. Shaul knew that the collection would be bulky enough that it would take several people to transport it to Jerusalem (v. 4), not what one would expect if money were collected.
4… OK, But what about the “Lord’s Day” then?
There is one other verse that is used to justify calling Sunday the “Lord's Day” and that is found in Revelation chapter One the apostle Yochanan - John says;
“On the Lord’s Day I was in the Spirit, and I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet.” Revelation 1:10.
However, it in no way states that he was observing the Sabbath, and it does not in any way refer to worshiping on the first day of the week, or on any day of the week for that matter. Revelation is a “prophecy” (1:3) regarding end-time events. Clearly, then, the “Lord's Day” may also be synonymous with the “Day of the Lord” in a future time, mentioned more than 30 times in prophecy, when Elohim will supernaturally intervene in human affairs, executing punishment on all the nations and finally Yahushua our blessed Messiah will return to this earth to bring world peace at last. Yochanan - John meant that he was carried in a vision by Elohim's Spirit to that time!
But even if Yochanan - John was speaking about a day of the week it would not have been the first day, but more likely the day that was sanctified by the Father!? Remember what Yahushua said: “The Son of Man is … Master of the Sabbath” (Markus - Mark 2:28). Also, Elohim said “the Sabbath is “the Sanctified day of YHVH.” (Yeshayahu - Isaiah 58:13). Then the fourth commandment, Elohim said very clearly;
“Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it Sanctified. Six days you shall labour and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to YHVH your Elohim. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the alien within your gates. For in six days YHVH made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but He rested on the seventh day. Therefore YHVH blessed the Sabbath day and made it Sanctified.” Shemos - Exodus 20: 8-11.
Obviously, the seventh-day Sabbath is not our day. For without question IT IS YaHVaH’s Sanctified DAY! The weekly pagan SUNday observance, therefore, has absolutely no Scriptural foundation!
5… What about the six other days?
I believe that the Seventh Day Sabbath is of great importance to the continual peaceful existence of all man and the entire created universe. Yet, many people and the churches simply cannot see the great importance and benefit of the weekly Seventh Day Sabbath to the peaceful existence and stability of Man and the whole Universe. They insist their man-made reasoning to argue that the Sabbath is already “done away” with, or that the Sabbath can be observed on any day of the week.
However YaHVaH Elohim, blessed be His Sanctified Name, who is the Creator of the Day of “Rest” – the Sabbath and the whole universe is very clear and specific: For the Seventh Day is the Sabbath, is the Day that He blessed and sanctified for the Day is Sanctified as it is the day that is a reminder of His Creation. Therefore, the Sabbath must be properly observed to capture and preserve the memory of Elohim’s day of rest and that He created all things, as well as having given us this day as a day to rest and remember our Creator! (Bereshis - Genesis 2:2-3, Shemos -Exodus 20:8, Markus - Mark 2:27).
“On the Seventh Day Elohim ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the SEVENTH DAY from all his work which he had made.” Bereshis - Genesis 2:2.
“And ELOHIM BLESSED THE SEVENTH DAY, and SANCTIFIED IT: because in it He had rested (Hebrew for “rested” is “Shabbat”) from all His work which Elohim created and made.” Bereshis - Genesis 2:3.
If the faithful following the above Scriptures will always keep the Sabbath Sanctified and that cannot be done on any other day than on the Seventh Day as given to man by the Almighty and we need to remember that this was confirmed by our Redeemer Yahushua, who very clearly said, “… the Sabbath was made for Man.” (Markus – Mark 2:27). You will note that He did NOT say, “The Sabbath was made for the Judeans (the Jews)” or “for Israel.” No indeed not, for the Sabbath is for all those in faith, regardless if they are Hebrew believers or those who were once Gentiles but now true believers in Messiah, thus the two have become ONE in the Body of Messiah Yahushua! (Ephesians 2:11-22).
I am sure, having read the Word that you will have noticed that YaHVaH Elohim, blessed be His Sanctified Name, ONLY pronounced a BLESSING on THE SEVENTH DAY Sabbath, and NOT on any of the other six days.
Having Sanctified only the Seventh Day Sabbath and not the other six days, means that if you observe the Sabbath on any of the other six days, you will miss out on the rich blessings, but more so on Elohim and Yahushua’s holiness and presence on the Sabbath Day and that will be to your own disadvantage, as well as being an act of sheer disobedience!
Of course we can and will pray and praise our Heavenly Father on the other six days, for we must do so daily, and we do this in the Name of Yahushua! But, none of these days are the Sabbath, that day alone is different and very special!
6… The Test Commandment:
Most students of the Scriptures should know that the patriarch Avraham was the great-grandfather of Judah, being the name out of which the christian church originally penned the term “the Jews” in the Greek translation of the Gospels, although the original Gospel’s were written first in Hebrew and there is now absolute proof that this is the case!
Later the word “Jews” and “Judaism” was generally adopted by the Hebrews as being both the Judeans and Israelites (read my study Who is Israel). The question arises; did Avraham keep Elohim’s Seventh Day Sabbath? YES! You may question me and say, but, how do you know that? That is simple; remember, everything must be based on the Word, for Elohim very clearly stated;
“I give all these lands, and I will perform the oath which I swore to Avraham your father. And I will make your descendants multiply as the stars of heaven; I will give to your descendants all these lands; and in your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed; because Avraham obeyed My voice and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws.” Bereshis - Genesis 26:3-5.
1 – We have read that Noach already knew about the clean and unclean animals, even before the flood commenced, thus there must have been many laws already given! 2 - Having read these two verses it must have become quite obvious that Avraham was a faithful servant and he kept YaHVaH’s commandments, statues and His laws! 3 - Thus beloved, indeed the Sabbath was being kept, long before Israel became a nation of people, for the Sabbath was given unto all of those “He created in His image” as were all the laws He gave from the beginning, and that Yahushua said He would not do away with! Read Mattityahu chapter 4 - It is amazing that our blessed Messiah confirms the ten commandments during His ministry whilst on earth, just read the Gospels and they are there, including the Sabbath, the forth commandment!
Knowing that both Noach and Avraham upheld the Sabbath, succeeding generations of Hebrews clearly understood from these verses that Avraham kept the Seventh Day Sabbath that Elohim had “sanctified” at the conclusion of the creation. And in the Brit Chadashah, the New Covenant, the apostle Shaul - Paul tells us that Avraham is the “father” of the faithful (Romans 4:11, 16).
Amazingly there are many theologians that continue to teach … that … “The fourth commandment about keeping the Sabbath Sanctified was just part of that “Old Covenant that God made with the Jews at Mount Sinai in the days of Moses. And, because the Old Covenant ended at Messiah's death, the Sabbath requirement has also ended and we now have a new Christian day of worship, the Lords day!” Yet having said all that, I am well aware that there are some of these very same theologians and ministers who actually know the Scriptures that we have already covered above, thus why are they not teaching it?
I remember one particular minister telling me; “Brother, it would cost me my job if I told the congregation truth.” What is so sad, that this is the case with so many pastors who know the truth about the pagan background of both Christmas and Easter and they actually hate those pagan feasts, but they have to uphold them, for if they tell you the truth, they are out of a job. They have told me, “I have a family and due to my ministry life and the love of doing this, I have no other talents, thus I would not know what to do.” I keep on telling them “Trust Yahushua The Messiah for He will never forsake a faithful servant! If the fellowship forsakes you, it will be to their detriment, not yours!”
Thus as we know from the Word at the beginning of human history that Elohim commanded to keep the Seventh Day Sabbath a “Sanctified time.” And some 2,000 years later, Avraham, who is stylised as the father of the faithful, set for us an EXAMPLE of faithfulness by keeping Elohim's “commandments and statutes” that obviously included the observance of the Sabbath day. And I wish to restate this once again; this was still LONG BEFORE there was an Old Covenant made with the Children of Israel at Mount Sinai!
We are now going to examine an account found in Shemos - Exodus 16:1-30:
With Israel having seen YaHVaH Elohim’s great power and might, the Ten Plagues, their miraculous escape from Egypt, the next miracle at the Red Sea as the waters parted, yet here they were on the other side of the Red Sea having sung their words of praise, full of joy and before you knew it the Israelites “grumbled” against Moshe and Aaron due to the lack of tasty and spicy food;
“… on the fifteenth day of the second month after they had come out of Egypt. In the desert the whole community grumbled against Moshe and Aaron. The Israelites said to them, ‘If only we had died by YHVH’s hand in Egypt! There we sat around pots of meat and ate all the food we wanted, but you have brought us out into this desert to starve this entire assembly to death.” Verses 1-3.
Elohim having heard this - said, “I will ... TEST them, whether they will walk in My LAW or not” (verse 4). Now this verse is very interesting, because it provides the best proof that His law was obviously already in full effect long BEFORE the giving of the Old Covenant Law at Mount Sinai!
In His everlasting love, Elohim explained that He would perform the following miracle and that on every day of the week, except on the Seventh Day - Yes friends on the Sabbath. He would provide special food from heaven called “manna” - or better translated - ‘what is it’ and it would fall to the ground in the morning like dew. The people were to gather it up each morning and they were to eat it on that very same day. They were clearly told not to keep any of it overnight, because it would breed worms and stink.
We should remember by Elohim providing nourishment to Israel was a great blessing, but with it came with a test for Israel and it was a “TEST” to see whether they would follow YaHVaH Elohim’s law or not. Thus, let us see what did the people do? Let us go back to the Scriptures;
“Each morning everyone gathered as much as he needed and when the sun grew hot, it melted away. On the sixth day, they gathered twice as much two omers for each person and the leaders of the community came and reported this to Moshe. He said to them, ‘This is what YHVH commanded (past tense): ‘Tomorrow is to be a day of rest, a Sanctified Sabbath to YHVH. So bake what you want to bake and boil what you want to boil. Save whatever is left and keep it until morning.’” Verses 21-23.
Sadly as human beings often do, some sadly did not take the Almighty seriously and they went out on the Sabbath and tried to find manna.
“And YHVH said to Moshe, ‘How long do you (people) refuse to keep My commandments and My laws? See! For YHVH has given you the Sabbath; therefore He gives you on the sixth day bread for two days. Let every man remain in his place; let no man go out of his place on the Seventh Day.' So the people rested on the Seventh Day.” Verses 28-30.
Beloved, I wish to remind you once again, all this occurred before Israel arrived at Mount Sinai and Elohim began performing a weekly three-phase miracle to prove to His people, which day was and had always been His Sanctified Sabbath. But, when some people tried to do some work on that day, our Creator would angrily say, “How LONG do you refuse to keep My commandments and My laws?”
7… Who Gave the Ten Commandments?
The Ten Commandments, including the law regarding the Sanctified Sabbath day has been in existence from the very beginning of time. Therefore Elohim was simply reminding His people of Israel of these laws at Mt Sinai and thus He repeated the laws that He had already given earlier, but He added new laws, such as the new priestly duties and other relevant laws, including the sacrificial ones. Although some of the sacrificial laws must have been given earlier also, as we will know from Scripture, as we will have read about various sacrifices, long before the time of Judah!
But now we come to YaHVaH Elohim codifying of the Ten Commandments for His people of Israel and this was most special and a Sanctified occasion. We know from the Word that thunder roared and lightning flashed, whilst the earth shook with the power of our Heavenly Creator. Then Elohim Himself spoke the “Ten Words,” or “Commandments!” (Shemos - Exodus 20:1). We need to remember the words from Yochanan – John chapter one;
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with Elohim, and the Word was Elohim. He was with Elohim in the beginning. Through Him all things were made; without Him nothing was made that has been made.” Yochanan - John 1:1-3.
Now, we also need to remember that Yahushua Himself told the Hebrews the following very clearly; “You have never heard His (YHVH’s) voice nor seen His form.” Yochanan - John 5:37.
Thus the question we could ask, just who was it Moshe was speaking with, or hearing at Sinai and in the wilderness? We also know that He was often called the “Rock” of Israel (Davarim - Deuteronomy 32:4, 15, 31; Tehillim - Psalm 18:2, 31, 46, etc.).
In the Brit Chadashah, the New Covenant, the Apostle Shaul - Paul was inspired to write about Him. He says the Israelites;
“They all (Israel) ate the same spiritual food and drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank from the spiritual ROCK that accompanied them, and that ROCK was Messiah.” 1 Corinthians 10:4.
The Word makes it abundantly clear that the Elohim who spoke to ancient Israel was the One who later poured out Himself, or better stated His Sanctified Spirit into Miriam (Mary) and she gave birth to Yahushua The Messiah who is Elohim!
During His human lifetime, Yahushua told the arguing Pharisees, “Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM” (Yochanan - John 8:58). Many respected Scripture commentaries acknowledge that in this verse where Yahushua is clearly indicating that He was, in fact, the Elohim of Israel Who had now come in the flesh!
Regarding this phrase, “I AM,” the “Expositor’s Bible Commentary” states:
“I AM” implies continuous existence, including existence when Abraham appeared. Yahushua was, therefore, asserting that at the time of Abraham's birth, he existed. Furthermore, I AM was recognized by the Jews as a title of deity. When Elohim commissioned Moses to demand from Pharaoh the release of the Israelites, he said, "This is what you are to say to the Israelites: 'I AM has sent me to you'" (Exod. 3:14). [One scholar] states that "the phrase harbours within itself the most authentic, the most audacious, and the most profound affirmation by Yahushua of who he was" [vol. 9, p. 99]. Please Note: The Name of our Saviour was changed to His original Hebrew Name “Yahushua” by the author of this study!
Yes, Yahushua The Messiah was certainly the Elohim of the Tanach, the Old Covenant, who was “the Word,” who spoke on His Father’s behalf. Thus, this means that He who became the man - Yahushua our beloved Messiah is the One who originally created the Sabbath by resting on the Seventh Day! No wonder He “is Master” of that day, as we have seen from (Markus - Mark 2:28). For He MADE the Sabbath!
8… A Sign between Elohim and His People:
Later, Elohim again made a special covenant with Israel concerning the Sabbath, when He said,
“Speak also to the children of Israel, saying: ‘Surely My Sabbaths you shall keep, for it is a SIGN between Me and you throughout your generations, that you may KNOW that I AM YHVH who sanctifies you.’” Shemos - Exodus 31:13.
The emphasis here is that we “know” the true Elohim who sets us apart if we keep the “sign” of His Sabbath, which points to Him as the CREATOR.
He Who is the Word from the beginning, continued;
“The Israelites are to observe the Sabbath, celebrating it for the generations to come as a perpetual covenant. It will be a sign between Me and the Israelites forever, for in six days YHVH made the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day He abstained from work and rested.” Shemos - Exodus 31:16-17.
YaHVaH Elohim, or we may well say He who is The Word, who in the flesh, we know as Yahushua The Messiah and our Redeemer, said that this would be a “perpetual covenant” and again stated that it would be a “sign” between Him and His people “forever.” The point is beloved that the two words used in Hebrew are identical, thus “perpetual” and “forever” in Hebrew are “Olam,” which means not just “forever,” but “eternity,” the “universe” a “time without end.” Thus it is quite clear that the Sabbath was NEVER going to be done away with by HE who gave us the Sabbath to keep from the conclusion of the creation on the very first Seventh Day, when Elohim “rested.” OR is the ‘christian’ going to debate the fact that Yahushua is NOT Elohim?
Notice especially that the Sabbath was to be kept by the Israelites as a “perpetual (eternal) covenant” between them and Elohim “forever”! Do we find ANY evidence whatever that the Israelites who became believers in Messiah Yahushua were to forsake that sacred covenant and start keeping some other day of the week? Is it at all possible that Elohim could have a double standard when it comes to which day to keep as the Sabbath?
NEVER! For according to Shaul - Paul who told us that those who were once Gentile Believers in Messiah were to be “grafted” into Israel.
“If some of the branches have been broken off, and you, though a wild olive shoot, have been grafted in among the others and now share in the nourishing sap from the olive root … After all, if you were cut out of an olive tree that is wild by nature, and contrary to nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree, how much more readily will these, the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree!” Romans 11:17 & 24.
“There is neither Judean nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Messiah Yahushua. If you belong to Messiah, then you are Avraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise.” Galatians 3:28-29.
Please Note: “Avraham’s seed” in reality means that those of the Gentiles who have come into the faith of the One true YaHVaH Elohim and Messiah Yahushua who came in the flesh, being the Elohim in the flesh, etc, are part of the seeds sown by the faithful and thus are the harvest in Messiah and ONE in the Body!
In Yeshayahu - Isaiah 56, we find a remarkable prophecy set right in the midst of END-TIME prophecies and many of which refer to the years that are just ahead of us. In this setting, YaHVaH Elohim gives this rather pointed instruction to men and women of ALL nations:
“Maintain justice and do what is right, for My salvation is close at hand and My righteousness will soon be revealed. Blessed is the man who does this, the man who holds it fast, who keeps the Sabbath without desecrating it, and keeps his hand from doing any evil.” Yeshayahu - Isaiah 56:1-2.
It is also very important to note that just a few verses later that Elohim instructs the Gentiles or foreigners to keep His Sabbath and describes the BLESSINGS that would come from doing so:
“And foreigners who bind themselves to YHVH to serve Him, to love the Name of YHVH, and to worship Him, all who keep the Sabbath without desecrating it and who hold fast to My covenant these I will bring to My Sanctified mountain and give them joy in My House of Prayer. Their burnt offerings and sacrifices will be accepted on My altar; for My House will be called a House of Prayer for all nations.” Yeshayahu - Isaiah 56:6-7. NIV.
As Yahushua said, the Sabbath was made for “man” and having read the above, we now know this obviously means for ALL mankind, especially the faithful in Messiah Yahushua! We need to remember that our beloved Yahushua and all the Apostles continually faithfully upheld the Seventh Day Sabbath on the same day that all the Hebrews (Jews) around them were keeping, for let’s face it ALL of them were Jews!
9… The “Example” of Yahushua Messiah:
Elohim tells us time and again that Messiah was the “LIGHT” and an “EXAMPLE” of how we ought to live. It is amazing how many professing christian ministers will give lip service to this statement, yet “reason” and argue and ARGUE against following Messiah’s perfect example in relation to keeping the blessed Sabbath and other acts of obedience to Elohim’s law, such as the Ten Commandments as well as YHVH’s seven Feasts as found in Vayikra – Leviticus 23. All these feasts are directly related to our blessed Messiah, but they are ignored and two pagan feasts are celebrated instead, which are to do directly with pagan god’s and have their origins over a thousand years before our Saviour came to earth!
Speaking of Yahushua, the Gospel of Yochanan - John tells us, “In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it” (Yochanan - John 1:4-5). Do most religionists today really comprehend that “light” any more than they did in Yahushua’s own day? Sadly the answer is NO!
Later, Messiah said, “I am the light of the world. He who follows Me shall not walk in darkness, but have the light of life” (Yochanan - John 8:12). What did He mean by this term … “follows Me”? Can a person reject Yahushua’s teaching, refuse to follow His example and the entire way of life He exemplified, and still claim to be His “follower”? Elohim inspired Shime’on - Peter to instruct us as follows;
“For to this you were called, because Messiah also suffered for us, leaving us an EXAMPLE, that you should follow His steps: who committed no sin, nor was guile found in His mouth.” 1 Shime’on – 1 Peter 2:21-22.
Yes, in all things Messiah set us an example! Shaul - Paul echoes this theme, telling the Corinthians, “Imitate me, just as I also imitate Messiah” (1 Corinthians 11:1). So we are to “imitate” Yahushua the Messiah and I mean not just loosely following Him according to your own human reasoning, but we are to “follow” Him according to THE WORD, which offers LIFE!
The Apostle Yochanan - John also stated, very close to the very end of his life that “he who says he abides in (the Messiah) ought himself also to walk just as He walked” (1 Yochanan - 1 John 2:6). I feel that this verse makes it very clear, that we are to imitate Him and do as He did and that means to uphold His Word and keep the Sabbath Sanctified and on the Seventh Day as He originally commanded it to be kept for all eternity, and not just for Israel, but as we have seen in Yeshayahu – Isaiah, also for all nations, but especially everyone who has come into the blessing of being grafted into the olive tree!
We may ask, “How did Yahushua our Messiah live”? The Sermon on the Mount is usually regarded as the very ESSENCE of His teachings. It was there where Yahushua said;
“Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law (Torah) or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfil them. I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished (The arrival of the “New Heaven and New Earth”). Anyone who breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the Kingdom of *Heaven (*residence of Elohim), but whoever practices and teaches these commands will be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven.” Mattityahu - Matthew 5:17-19.
He who IS THE Word certainly did not come to do away with the Ten Commandments that He had previously delivered from the Father in the Tanach - Old Covenant. Rather, He came to give full expression to them and to show their real spiritual intent. In fact, Yahushua made them even more binding. For example, Yahushua explained that the seventh commandment against adultery and you will note that He prohibited even more than just having sexual relations with someone other than your spouse. He even forbade lusting after others in your mind (Mattityahu - Matthew 5:27-28). And as we've just seen, He also said that in order to be called “great” in His coming Kingdom, men must “do and teach" … “even the least of these commandments.” How much more vital is it that we do and teach the very “TEST” commandment that points to the true Elohim the Creator, and we have read about the “Great Test” earlier relating to the gathering of the manna for six day’s, etc., before Israel had arrived at Sinai!
I do get very tired of that old argument that so many pastors, priests and so-called, all who are in reality are rather uneducated Scriptural scholars, for all they know is what their denomination’s feed them, and they just spew out their doctrines, which has so many holes in it that often becomes much of a joke. But, it is really rather tragic! They continue to say that the Messiah Himself broke the Sabbath and beloved, that is blasphemy! Why is that so? How can He who gave the Law as an eternal Law, break it?
Thus what your ministers have been saying for so long is completely false! The Word says that He was “without sin” (Hebrews 4:15). And “sin IS the transgression of the “Law” (1 Yochanan – 1 John 3:4, KJV). So we know that Yahushua never transgressed the fourth commandment regarding keeping the Sabbath Sanctified. If Yahushua had broken the Sabbath, He would have earned the wages of sin, which is death (Romans 6:23) and then He could not have become our Redeemer. Thus it is very clear, that our blessed Saviour Yahushua never broke even the least of Elohim's commandments, nor taught men to do so. On the contrary, He said’
“I have KEPT My Father’s commandments.” Yochanan - John 15:10.
Furthermore, at the very beginning of Yahushua’s ministry, He set the standard for what would be His lifelong example;
“He went to Nazareth, where He had been brought up, and on the Sabbath day He went into the synagogue, as was His custom. And He stood (was called) up to read. The scroll of the prophet Yeshayahu - Isaiah was handed to Him. Unrolling it, He found the place where it is written.” Lukas - Luke 4:16.
“Now He (Yahushua) was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath." Lukas - Luke 13:10.
Thus we have very clearly read that our Saviour went “to the synagogue as was His custom” all of His life and He was circumcised, and he had His Bar Mitzvah (became a Man at the age of thirteen, etc), thus all the Laws had been kept by His family as He had done all of His life! Then, who is the church to say, no the Sabbath and the Ten Commandments have been done away with, “once saved, always saved, etc, what utter rubbish! That is NOT what the blessed Word states! Beloved, we should follow Messiah's example in keeping the same Sabbath day that He kept! And which day was this Sabbath? Why, the very same day that the Israelites, the Jews around Him were keeping and that of course is from twilight Friday to twilight Saturday. “It was evening and it was morning day One.”
That is the calendar that YaHVaH Elohim created, and Israel in principle still upholds, rather than the pagan Roman one we have today, where every single day and every month is named after a pagan god, and sadly we are forced to live by it. Now, can you see how Satan has influenced the whole world, and that same evil Roman church has also created an evil pagan church with its harlot daughters as clearly described in Revelations! Are you in one of the SUNday god churches? Who also uphold the feast of the moon goddess Semiramis who later become known as “Ishtar” (Easter), and she claimed that she had come down from the moon in a giant moon egg that fell into the Euphrates River. So now you know where the pagan “easter egg” originates from!
Then there is Christmas, which has nothing to do with our Saviour whatsoever, for obviously, He could not have been born mid winter, as it is freezing, and often the fields are covered with snow. Thus the shepherds are certainly not sleeping in the fields! But, the Romans created that feast as it was first officially celebrated on December 25th.in 336 AD, after Emperor Constantine had declared his newly created form of ‘christianity’ as the empire's new favoured religion. However, we need to remember that he remained a believer in the sun god to the day he died! Thus he ordered it to be celebrated forever on the day of the ancient Roman feast of the birth of SOL (the SUN god). Thus, the church is forcing their flock in observing feasts that has its origins in two pagan gods, 1 - the moon god and 2 - the sun god, and then they christianised it somewhat!
Now does that make it OK? NO IT IS NOT! For salvation is YOUR responsibility and not your leaders. If you have the Scriptures it is your responsibility to check the Word, and if what they say is not right, then oppose it. But, the problem is, most people just fall in line and it is OK and we will be sheep. I am sorry, sheep can be led anywhere, and you could be led on a big ship to a Muslim land and into the slaughterhouse. OK, that is an analogy, but, if you are following error, then you are still responsible for the sin, and the wages of sin is death!
10… Were Messiah and Disciples Sabbath-Breakers?
We have seen above that Messiah Yahushua obviously upheld Elohim’s Sanctified Sabbath day. The Pharisees did accuse Him of breaking it, as we can see in Markus - Mark 2 where Yahushua’s Apostles picked heads of grain to eat when they were hungry on the Sabbath. Most Jewish folk today, and myself included prior to my coming to Yahushua in 1977 would have said that He indeed was breaking the Sabbath Law! However, now I know very much better for the Apostles and Yahushua did NOT transgress a single Sabbath Law! The only violation was a man-made law, which was added by the scribes and Pharisees to the original three, and yes I do mean that there are ONLY THREE ACTUAL SABBATH LAWS! But, these typical self-righteous men full of the self and traditions had other ideas to place a yoke and a burden on the people of Israel. But these laws are NOT Elohim’s Laws, and were of no value and should not be upheld by anyone, including so many Messianic Jews, who sadly in so many cases uphold the rabbinic laws.
Of course, it was the responsibility of each individual to make sure that he was not overexerting himself on the Sabbath to the point that his actions would have qualified as work. If Yahushua had not been present with His disciples, it would simply have been a personal judgment call for them. But Messiah was there as a perfect Judge and Master of the Sabbath. And He made it very clear that the scribes and Pharisees were wrong! Picking a few heads of grain and eating them simply does not violate the Sabbath command, for it was NOT – “servile work.” On the other hand, if the disciples had been harvesting to take a load home that would have been a very different matter for that would have been “servile work”! But, of course, they were not. They were just taking the odd head here and there for a bite to eat!
However, some will persist that surely the Sabbath was done away when Yahushua died. We know that they desired to place Yahushua’s body in the tomb before the Sabbath commenced; this was the High Sabbath of the Feast of Unleavened Bread! Then notice that after His burial, His most dedicated followers decided they would better prepare His body when the Sabbath was over in order that it wouldn't decay so quickly in the tomb.
“Then they returned (home) and prepared spices and fragrant oils. And they rested on the Sabbath according to the commandment.” Lukas - Luke 23:56.
Lukas - Luke was inspired by the Sanctified Spirit to write here that these dedicated women kept the Sabbath “according to the commandment”! Even after Yahushua’s death and even after EVERYTHING that had been going on, with our Saviour having been “nailed to the stake/tree” yet in spite of all this, Elohim’s Sabbath commandment remained undisturbed!
Thus there are no signs whatsoever that the disciples were substituting the Sabbath and now worshipping on a Sunday. We have just read that they refrained from doing work on the Sabbath. But notice the very next verses;
“Now on the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they, and certain other women with them, came to the tomb bringing the spices which they had prepared. But they found the stone rolled away from the tomb.” Lukas - Luke 24:1-2.
Here we see that on the “first day of the week,” remember that the pagan “Sunday” did not officially exist until the fourth century; they had come to do work. Obviously, the Sabbath had been kept Sanctified and that was the previous – the Seventh Day.
After His resurrection, did Yahushua in some way indicate that His former teaching on the Sabbath as being “Olam” - “Eternal” – “forever” had suddenly been “done away” or “nailed to the stake/tree”? NO WAY!
Instead, our beloved Redeemer had instructed His disciples to go out over the whole earth and teach these same things, even to the END of this age.
“All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Sanctified Spirit, teaching them to observe ALL THINGS that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.” Mattityahu - Matthew 28:18-20.
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