All things Temple and High Priestly...

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nazarene
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All things Temple and High Priestly...

Post by nazarene » Sun Jun 23, 2019 6:21 am

שלום!

Some agreements between Josephus and Philo to do with the symbolism of the High Priest/Temple;

Heaven/Holy Place:

Antiquities of the Jews 3:181 181 When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men.

Spec. 1:66 66 I. We ought to look upon the universal world as the highest and truest temple of God, having for its most holy place that most sacred part of the essence of all existing things, namely, the heaven; and for ornaments, the stars; and for priests, the subordinate ministers of his power, namely, the angels, incorporeal souls, not beings compounded of irrational and rational natures, such as our bodies are, but such as have the irrational parts wholly cut out, being absolutely and wholly intellectual, pure reasonings, resembling the unit.

Shoulder Stones/the sun and moon;

Mos. 2:122 122 And our argument will be able to bring forth twenty probable reasons that the mantle over the shoulders is an emblem of heaven. For in the first place, the two emeralds on the shoulder-blades, which are two round stones, are, in the opinion of some persons who have studied the subject, emblems of those stars which are the rulers of night and day, namely, the sun and moon; or rather, as one might argue with more correctness and a nearer approach to truth, they are the emblems of the two hemispheres; for, like those two stones, the portion below the earth and that over the earth are both equal, and neither of them is by nature adapted to be either increased or diminished like the moon.

Antiquities of the Jews 3:185 185 He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the belt which surrounded the high priest all around, signified the ocean, for that goes all around and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest's shoulders.

12 stones on breastplate/zodiac;

Antiquities of the Jews 3:186 186 And for the twelve stones, whether we understand by them the months, or whether we understand the like number of the signs of that circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. And for the mitre, which was of a blue colour, it seems to me to mean heaven;

Spec. 1:87 87 Then on his chest there are twelve precious stones of different colors, arranged in four rows of three stones in each row, being fashioned so as an emblem of the zodiac. For the zodiac also consists of twelve animals, and so divides the four seasons of the year, allotting three animals to each season.

Menorah/seven stars;

Mos. 2:102 102 The candlestick was placed on the southern side of the tabernacle, since by it the maker intimates, in a figurative manner, the motions of the stars which give light; for the sun, and the moon, and the rest of the stars, being all at a great distance from the northern parts of the universe, make all their revolutions in the south. And from this candlestick there proceeded six branches, three on each side, projecting from the candlestick in the center, so as altogether to complete the number of seven;

The Jewish War 5:217 217 Now, the seven lamps signified the seven planets; for so many there were springing out of the lampstand. Now, the twelve loaves that were upon the table signified the circle of the zodiac and the year;

Flax, linen/earth:

Antiquities of the Jews 3:184 184 Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it showed that God had made the universe of four [elements]; and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendour by which all things are enlightened.

Congr. 1:117 117 Accordingly, this is his abode, discernible only by the intellect; but the world is perceptible by the outward senses; since Moses made the curtains of such things as are symbols of the four elements, for they were made of fine flax, and of hyacinthine color, and of purple, and of scarlet,- four numbers, as I have said before. Now the fine flax is an emblem of the earth, for the flax grows out of the earth; and the hyacinthine color is a symbol of the air, for it is black by nature; purple ('porphura'), again, is a symbol of the water; for the cause of this dye is derived from the sea, being the shell-fish of the same name ('he porphura'); and scarlet is a symbol of fire, for it most nearly resembles a flame.

12 loaves/year;

Antiquities of the Jews 3:182 182 And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the lampstand into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the lampstands, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number.

Spec. 1:172 172 And loaves are placed on the seventh day on the sacred table, being equal in number to the months of the year, twelve loaves, arranged in two rows of six each, in accordance with the arrangement of the equinoxes; for there are two equinoxes every year, the vernal and the autumnal, which are each reckoned by periods of six months. At the vernal equinox all the seeds sown in the ground begin to ripen; about which time, also, the trees begin to put forth their fruit. And by the autumnal one the fruit of the trees has arrived at a perfect ripeness; and at this period, again, is the beginning of seed time. Thus nature, going through a long course of time, showers gifts after gifts upon the race of man, the symbols of which are the two sixes of loaves thus placed on the table.

Clothing of the High Priest/microcosm of the universe

Spec. 1:84 84 But the high priest is commanded to wear a similar dress when he goes into the holy of holies to offer incense, because linen is not made of any animal that dies, as woolen garments are. He is also commanded to wear another robe also, having very beautiful embroidery and ornament upon it, so that it may seem to be a copy and representation of the world. And the description of the ornament is a clear proof of this;

Antiquities of the Jews 3:180 180 for if anyone do but consider the fabric of the tabernacle, and take a view of the garments of the high priest, and of those vessels which we make use of in our sacred ministration, he will find that our legislator was a divine man, and that we are unjustly reproached by others: for if anyone do without prejudice, and with judgment, look upon these things, he will find they were everyone made in way of imitation and representation of the universe.
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nazarene
Posts: 133
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Re: All things Temple and High Priestly...

Post by nazarene » Sun Jun 23, 2019 11:06 am

שלום!

Some High Priestly names/attributes;

Somn. 1:215 215 For there are, as it seems, two temples belonging to God; one being this world, in which the high priest is the divine word, his own first-born son. The other is the rational soul, the priest of which is the real true man, the copy of whom, perceptible to the senses, is he who performs his paternal vows and sacrifices, to whom it is enjoined to put on the aforesaid tunic, the representation of the universal heaven, in order that the world may join with the man in offering sacrifice, and that the man may likewise co-operate with the universe.

Fug. 1:108 108 This difficult and scarcely explicable perplexity we may escape if we adopt the inner and allegorical explanation in accordance with natural philosophy. For we say that the high priest is not a man, but is the word of God, who has not only no participation in intentional errors, but none even in those which are involuntary.

Fug. 1:109-110 109 For Moses says that he cannot be defiled neither in respect of his father, that is, the mind, nor of his mother, that is, the external sense; [Leviticus xxi. 11] because, I imagine, he has received imperishable and wholly pure parents, God being his father, who is also the father of all things, and wisdom being his mother, by means of whom the universe arrived at creation; 110 and also because he is anointed with oil, by which I mean that the principal part of him is illuminated with a light like the beams of the sun, so as to be thought worthy to be clothed with garments. And the most ancient word of the living God is clothed with the word as with a garment, for it has put on earth, and water, and air, and fire, and the things which proceed from these elements. But the particular soul is clothed with the body, and the mind of the wise man is clothed with the virtues.

Fug. 1:116 116 But I am not saying this at random, but for the sake of proving that the period of the death of the high priest is a most natural termination of exile to be appointed by the law, so as to allow of the return of the fugitives.

Somn. 1:215 215 For there are, as it seems, two temples belonging to God; one being this world, in which the high priest is the divine word, his own first-born son. The other is the rational soul, the priest of which is the real true man, the copy of whom, perceptible to the senses, is he who performs his paternal vows and sacrifices, to whom it is enjoined to put on the aforesaid tunic, the representation of the universal heaven, in order that the world may join with the man in offering sacrifice, and that the man may likewise co-operate with the universe.

Somn. 2:189 189 "for when," the scripture says, "the high priest goes into the Holy of Holies he will not be a man." [Leviticus xvi. 17.] What then will he be if he is not a man? Will he be God? I would not venture to say that (for the chief prophet, Moses, did receive the inheritance of this name while he was still in Egypt, being called "the god of Pharaoh;") [Exodus vii. 1] nor again is he man, but he touches both these extremities as if he touched both the feet and the head.

Mos. 2:133 133 The high priest, then, being equipped in this way, is properly prepared for the performance of all sacred ceremonies, that, whenever he enters the temple to offer up the prayers and sacrifices in use among his nation, all the world may likewise enter in with him, by means of the imitations of it which he bears about him, the garment reaching to his feet, being the imitation of the air, the pomegranate of the water, the flowery hem of the earth, and the scarlet dye of his robe being the emblem of fire; also, the mantle over his shoulders being a representation of heaven itself; the two hemispheres being further indicated by the round emeralds on the shoulder-blades, on each of which were engraved six characters equivalent to six signs of the zodiac; the twelve stones arranged on the breast in four rows of three stones each, namely the logeum, being also an emblem of that reason which holds together and regulates the universe.

Spec. 1:96-97 96 and it also attracts the intellect of philosophers to examine its different parts. For God intends that the high priest should in the first place have a visible representation of the universe about him, in order that from the continual sight of it he may be reminded to make his own life worthy of the nature of the universe, and secondly, in order that the whole world may co-operate with him in the performance of his sacred rites. And it is exceedingly becoming that the man who is consecrated to the service of the Father of the world should also bring his son to the service of him who has begotten him. 97 There is also a third symbol contained in this sacred dress, which it is important not to pass over in silence. For the priests of other deities are accustomed to offer up prayers and sacrifices solely for their own relations, and friends, and fellow citizens. But the high priest of the Jews offers them up not only on behalf of the whole race of mankind, but also on behalf of the different parts of nature, of the earth, of water, of air, and of fire; and pours forth his prayers and thanksgivings for them all, looking upon the world (as indeed it really is) as his country, for which, therefore, he is accustomed to implore and propitiate its governor by supplications and prayers, beseeching him to give a portion of his own merciful and humane nature to the things which he has created.

Spec. 1:229 229 for it was fitting that a ruler should be ranked above a private individual, even in his performance of sacred ceremonies also: but the nation is superior to the ruler, since the whole must, at all times, be superior to the part. But the high priest is accounted worthy of the same honor as the whole nation, in respect of purification and of entreating a forgiveness of his sins from the merciful power of God. And he receives an equality of honor, not so much as it appears for his own sake, as because he is a servant of the nation, offering up a common thank-offering for them all in his most sacred prayers and most holy sacrifices.

(As a side note, Josephus when speaking about a person making offerings speaks in the same type of way about the individual not being greater than the whole;

Against Apion 2:196 196 And for our duty at the sacrifices themselves, we ought, in the first place, to pray for the common welfare of all, and after that for our own; for we are made for fellowship one with another; and he who prefers the common good before what is peculiar to himself, is above all acceptable to God. )

Spec. 3:133 133 When, therefore, the law says, let not the fugitive return till the high priest is dead, it says something equivalent to this: Until the high priest is dead, who is the common relation of all the people, to whom alone it is committed to decide the affairs of those who are living and those who are dead.

Praem. 1:53 53 therefore all the virtues are represented as virgins. And the most excellent of all, having taken the post of leader as if in a chorus, is piety and righteousness, which Moses, the interpreter of the will of God, possessed in a most eminent degree. On which account, besides an innumerable host of other circumstances which are recorded of him in the accounts which have come down to us of his life, he has received also four most especial prizes, in being invested with sovereign power, with the office of lawgiver, with the power of prophecy, and with the office of high priest.

That four things were associated with Mosheh also appears in targumic material;

Mosheh, the Rabban of Israel, was born on the seventh day of the month Adar, and on the seventh day of Adar he was gathered from the world. A voice fell from heaven, and thus spake: Come, all ye who have entered into the world, and behold the grief of Mosheh, the Rabban of Israel, who hath laboured, but not to please himself, and who is ennobled with four goodly crowns: the crown of the Law is his, because he brought it from the heavens above, when there was revealed to him the Glory of the Lord's Shekinah, with two thousand myriads of angels, and forty and two thousand chariots of fire. The crown of the Priesthood bath been his in the seven days of the peace offerings. The crown of the kingdom they gave him in possession from heaven: he drew not the sword, nor prepared the war horse, nor gathered he the host. The crown of a good name he possesseth by good works and by his humility. Therefore is Mosheh, the servant of the Lord, gathered in the land of Moab, by the kiss of the Word of the Lord. Targum Jonathan Deuteronomy XXXIV

The main thing here is although there is disagreement between Philo and the targum about what constituted the four things, both agree that Mosheh was a High Priest and King.

There were differing opinions also about the length of the High Priesthood of Mosheh;

Exod. Rab. 37.1; Our sages have said that Moses ministered as High Priest all the forty years that Israel was in the wilderness; but others hold that he only did so during the seven days of the consecration of the Tabernacle.

In the second Temple period divinity could be ascribed to human individuals, however, ofcourse this does not mean they are the Most High, as Mosheh was being considered a High Priest in the second Temple period [although ofcourse there were differing views], the aspect of being divine is also ascribed to Mosheh;

Ebr. 1:85 85 Therefore Moses, the divine prophet of God, in his description of the building of the temple, shows the perfection of the temple in both points; for it is not without due consideration for us that he covers the ark both within and without with gold, or that he gives two robes to the chief priest, or that he builds two altars, one outside the tabernacle for the victims, and the other inside for the burning incense; but he does this, wishing by these emblems to exhibit the virtues of each species;

In the view of Philo, Mosheh was not only High Priest, but he was divine. Although writing later in the first century Josephus is hesitant to call Mosheh a High Priest, he still says that Mosheh was a divine man;

Antiquities of the Jews 3:180 180 for if anyone do but consider the fabric of the tabernacle, and take a view of the garments of the high priest, and of those vessels which we make use of in our sacred ministration, he will find that our legislator was a divine man, and that we are unjustly reproached by others: for if anyone do without prejudice, and with judgment, look upon these things, he will find they were everyone made in way of imitation and representation of the universe.

The High Priest is called "the Holy one";

Num 16:7 and put fire in them, and put incense on them before Jehovah tomorrow; and it shall be, the man whom Jehovah chooses, he shall be the holy one. You take too much, sons of Levi!

The High Priest accepted "worship", the following texts demonstrate this;

Ex 28; Ezekiel the prophet; Diodorus Siculus XL.5; T. Levi 17:3; T. Reu 6:12; Sir 7:27-31; 49:16-50:21; Antiquities 11:326-338; 4Q405.23; 2 Enoch 57 & 64; Dan 7:13-14; 1 En. 46:5; 48:5; 62:6, 9; War 4:324–325; 3 Enoch 12–16; and the Mareh Kohen piyut in the synagogue’s Yom Kippur Avodah service, esp. the Ashkenazi rite

He also made them judges, for the decision of the most serious cases, and committed to their care the preservation of their laws and customs. Therefore they say that the Jews have never had any king; but that the leadership of the people has always been entrusted to a priest, who excels all the rest in prudence and virtue. They call him the chief priest, and they regard him as the messenger and interpreter of the mind and commands of God. 6 And they say that he, in all their public assemblies and other meetings, discloses what has been commanded; and the Jews are so compliant in these matters, that forthwith they prostrate themselves upon the ground, and adore him as the high priest, who has interpreted to them the will of God. At the end of the laws this is added: "This is what Moses has heard from God and proclaims to the Jews." This lawgiver also laid down many excellent rules and instructions for military affairs, in which he trained the youth to be brave and steadfast, and to endure all miseries and hardships. Diodorus Siculus XL...

http://attalus.org/translate/diodorus40.html

17 1 And whereas ye have heard concerning the seventy weeks, hear also concerning the priesthood. 2 For in each jubilee there shall be a priesthood. And in the first jubilee, the first who is anointed to the priesthood shall be great, and shall speak to God as to a father. And his priesthood shall be perfect with the Lord, [and in the day of his gladness shall he arise for the salvation of the world]. 3 In the second jubilee, he that is anointed shall be conceived in the sorrow of beloved ones; and his 4 priesthood shall be honoured and shall be glorified by all....T. Levi 17..

http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/t ... arles.html

Therefore I command you to hearken to Levi, because he shall know the law of the Lord, and shall give ordinances for judgement and shall sacrifice for all Israel until the consummation of the times, as the anointed High Priest, of whom the Lord spake, 9 I adjure you by the God of heaven to do truth each one unto his neighbour and to entertain love 10 each one for his brother. And draw ye near to Levi in humbleness of heart, that ye may receive 11 a blessing from his mouth. For he shall bless Israel and Judah, because him hath the Lord chosen to 12 be king over all the nation. And bow down before his seed, for on our behalf it will die in wars visible and invisible, and will be among you an eternal king...T. Reu 6...

Antiquities of the Jews 11:326-338 326 and Jaddua the high priest, when he heard that, was in an agony, and under terror, as not knowing how he should meet the Macedonians, since the king was displeased at his foregoing disobedience. He therefore ordained that the people should make supplications, and should join with him in offering sacrifice to God, whom he besought to protect that nation, and to deliver them from the perils that were coming upon them; 327 whereupon God warned him in a dream, which came upon him after he had offered sacrifice, that he should take courage, and adorn the city, and open the gates; that the rest should appear in white garments, but that he and the priests should meet the king in the clothes proper to their order, without the dread of any ill consequences, which the providence of God would prevent. 328 Upon which, when he rose from his sleep, he greatly rejoiced, and declared to all the revelation he had received from God. According to which dream he acted entirely, and so waited for the coming of the king. 329 And when he understood that he was not far from the city, he went out in procession, with the priests and the multitude of the citizens. The procession was venerable, and the manner of it different from that of other nations. It reached to a place called Sapha, which name, translated into Greek, signifies a prospect , for you have there a prospect both of Jerusalem and of the temple; 330 and when the Phoenicians and the Chaldeans that followed him thought they should have liberty to plunder the city, and torment the high priest to death, which the king's displeasure fairly promised them, the very reverse of it happened; 331 for Alexander, when he saw the multitude at a distance, in white garments, while the priests stood clothed with fine linen, and the high priest in purple and scarlet clothing, with his mitre on his head, having the golden plate whereon the name of God was engraved, he approached by himself, and adored that name, and first greeted the high priest. 332 The Jews also did all together, with one voice, greet Alexander, and surround him; whereupon the kings of Syria and the rest were surprised at what Alexander had done, and supposed him disordered in his mind. 333 However, Parmenion alone went up to him, and asked him how it came to pass that, when all others adored him, he should adore the high priest of the Jews? To whom he replied, ``I did not adore him, but that God who has honoured him with his high priesthood; 334 for I saw this very person in a dream, in these very clothes, when I was at Dios in Macedonia, who, when I was considering with myself, how I might obtain the dominion of Asia, exhorted me to make no delay, but boldly to pass over the sea there, for that he would conduct my army, and would give me the dominion over the Persians; 335 here it is that, having seen no other in those clothes, and now seeing this person in it, and remembering that vision, and the exhortation which I had in my dream, I believe that I bring this army under the divine conduct, and shall therewith conquer Darius, and destroy the power of the Persians, and that all things will succeed according to what is in my own mind.'' 336 And when he had said this to Parmenion, and had given the high priest his right hand, the priests ran along by him, and he came into the city. And when he went up into the temple, he offered sacrifice to God, according to the high priest's direction, and magnificently treated both the high priest and the priests. 337 And when the Book of Daniel was showed to him {a} wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that himself was the person intended; and as he was then glad, he dismissed the multitude for the present; but the next day he called them to him, and bade them ask what favours they pleased of him; 338 whereupon the high priest desired that they might enjoy the laws of their forefathers, and might pay no tribute on the seventh year. He granted all they desired; and when they entreated him that he would permit the Jews in Babylon and Media to enjoy their own laws also, he willingly promised to do hereafter what they desired:

The Jewish War 4:324-325 324 while those who a little before had worn the sacred garments, and had presided over the public worship; {a} and had been esteemed venerable by those who dwelt on the whole habitable earth when they came into our city, were cast out naked, and seen to be the food of dogs and wild beasts. 325 And I cannot but imagine that virtue itself groaned at these men's case, and lamented that she was here so terribly conquered by wickedness. And this at last was the end of Ananus and Jesus.

Sir 7:27 Honour thy father with thy whole heart, and forget not the sorrows of thy mother.
Sir 7:28 Remember that thou wast begotten of them; and how canst thou recompense them the things that they have done for thee?
Sir 7:29 Fear the Lord with all thy soul, and reverence his priests.
Sir 7:30 Love him that made thee with all thy strength, and forsake not his ministers.
Sir 7:31 Fear the Lord, and honour the priest; and give him his portion, as it is commanded thee; the firstfruits, and the trespass offering, and the gift of the shoulders, and the sacrifice of sanctification, and the firstfruits of the holy things.

4 And this Son of Man whom thou hast seen Shall raise up the kings and the mighty from their seats, [And the strong from their thrones] And shall loosen the reins of the strong, And break the teeth of the sinners.
5 [And he shall put down the kings from their thrones and kingdoms] Because they do not extol and praise Him, Nor humbly acknowledge whence the kingdom was bestowed upon them. 6 And he shall put down the countenance of the strong, And shall fill them with shame. 1 En. 46..

The Jewish War 4:323-324 323 and I cannot but think that it was because God had doomed this city to destruction, as a polluted city, and was resolved to purge his sanctuary by fire, that he cut off their great defenders and well wishers, 324 while those who a little before had worn the sacred garments, and had presided over the public worship; and had been esteemed venerable by those who dwelt on the whole habitable earth when they came into our city, were cast out naked, and seen to be the food of dogs and wild beasts.

"Public worship" could be potentially translated as "cosmic worship", or in the sense of leading the entire worlds worship.
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nazarene
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Re: All things Temple and High Priestly...

Post by nazarene » Mon Jul 01, 2019 4:36 pm

..places that YHWH can be applied to either priesthood or priestly stock...

Things devoted for [the use of] the priests cannot be redeemed but are to be given to the priests. Even as Terumah. R. Judah b. Bathyra [T2] says: things devoted generally fall to [the fund for] Temple Repairs, as it was said: every devoted thing is Most Holy unto The Lord. But the Sages say: things devoted generally fall to the priests, as it is said: as a field devoted: the possession thereof shall be the priest`s. If so, why is it said: `every devoted thing is Most Holy unto The Lord`? [that is to teach] that is applies to the Most Holy and the Less Holy things. m.Arakhin 8.6

In the above YHWH can be applied to the priesthood.

Then the "Day of Atonement" shall follow after the tenth jubilee period, when he shall atone for all the Sons of Light, and the people who are predestined to Melchizedek. (...) upon them (...) For this is the time decreed for the "Year of Melchizedek`s favor", and by his might he will judge God's holy ones and so establish a righteous kingdom, as it is written about him in the Songs of David ; "A godlike being has taken his place in the council of God; in the midst of divine beings he holds judgement

Isa 61:2 To proclaim the year of the LORD'S good pleasure, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn;

In the above the name of Melchizedek is switched with the name YHWH, indicating that YHWH can be applied to Melchizedek.

Notice how in the Scriptures below, Mosheh begins to speak in verse 2 [1] and Mosheh is still the one speaking in verse 6 [5], Mosheh speaking on behalf of the Most High, in effect calls himself YHWH ....

Deu 29:1 (28:69) These are the words of the covenant which the LORD commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, beside the covenant which He made with them in Horeb.
Deu 29:2 (29:1) And Moses called unto all Israel, and said unto them: Ye have seen all that the LORD did before your eyes in the land of Egypt unto Pharaoh, and unto all his servants, and unto all his land;
Deu 29:3 (29:2) the great trials which thine eyes saw, the signs and those great wonders;
Deu 29:4 (29:3) but the LORD hath not given you a heart to know, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, unto this day.
Deu 29:5 (29:4) And I have led you forty years in the wilderness; your clothes are not waxen old upon you, and thy shoe is not waxen old upon thy foot.
Deu 29:6 (29:5) Ye have not eaten bread, neither have ye drunk wine or strong drink; that ye might know that I am the LORD your God.
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nazarene
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Re: All things Temple and High Priestly...

Post by nazarene » Tue Jul 02, 2019 7:04 am

...angels and priests...

Philo makes the connection between the priesthood and angels;

Spec. 1:66 66 I. We ought to look upon the universal world as the highest and truest temple of God, having for its most holy place that most sacred part of the essence of all existing things, namely, the heaven; and for ornaments, the stars; and for priests, the subordinate ministers of his power, namely, the angels, incorporeal souls, not beings compounded of irrational and rational natures, such as our bodies are, but such as have the irrational parts wholly cut out, being absolutely and wholly intellectual, pure reasonings, resembling the unit.

This connection is also made in the dead sea scrolls speaking of the priesthood;

... May you be as an Angel of the Presence in the Abode of Holiness to the glory of the God of [hosts] ...May you attend upon the service in the Temple of the Kingdom and decree destiny in company with the Angels of the Presence, in common council [with the Holy Ones] for everlasting ages and time without end; for [all] His judgements are [truth]! May He make you holy among His people, and an [eternal] light [to illumine] the world with knowledge and to enlighten the face of the Congregation [with wisdom]! [May He] consecrate you to the Holy of Holies! For [you are made] holy for Him and you shall glorify His Name and His holiness …

But this connection is already woven into the Tanach;

Mal 2:7 For the priest's lips keep wisdom, and they seek the law at his mouth; for he is an angel of the LORD of the hosts.
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Re: All things Temple and High Priestly...

Post by nazarene » Tue Jul 02, 2019 12:05 pm

..Adam and Glory...

In the second Temple period Gan Eden was considered the Holy of Holies;

Jubilees 8:18......And Noah rejoiced that this portion came forth for Shem and for his sons, and he remembered all that he had spoken with his mouth in prophecy; for he had said: ’Blessed be the Lord God of Shem And may the Lord dwell in the dwelling of Shem.’ 19 And he knew that the Garden of Eden is the holy of holies, and the dwelling of the Lord, and Mount Sinai the centre of the desert, and Mount Zion -the centre of the navel of the earth: these three 20 were created as holy places facing each other. …...

This would place Adam in a High Priestly context, what is also interesting is that Ezekiel 1:26-28 seems to have been read together with Genesis 1:26 also in the second Temple period, as the dead sea scrolls demonstrate;

II ... [Rememb]er, O Lo[r]d that... Thou hast fashioned A[dam], our[f]ather, in the likeness of [Thy] glory; Thou didst breathe [a breath of life] into his nostrils and, with understanding, knowledge [Thou didst give him] ... Thou didst make [him] to rule [over the Gar]den of Eden which Thou didst plant... and to walk in the land of glory... he guarded. And Thou didst enjoin him not to st[ray ...]... he is flesh and to dust [he will return (?)] ... And Thou, Thou knowest... for everlasting generations... a living God and Thy hand ... man in the ways of... [to fill the] earth with [vi]olence and to shed [innocent blood] .. 4Q504 Fr. 8 recto

The phrase "in the likeness of [Thy] glory", would bring to mind Ezekiel 1;

Eze 1:26 And from above the expanse that was over their heads was an appearance like a stone of lapis lazuli azure blue, the likeness of a throne. And on the likeness of the throne was a likeness in appearance like a man on it from above.
Eze 1:27 And I saw Him, like the color of polished bronze, looking like fire within it all around. From the appearance of His loins and upward, and from the appearance of His loins and downward, I saw Him looking like fire; and brightness to it all around.
Eze 1:28 As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of the rain, so appeared the brightness all around. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of Jehovah. And I saw, and I fell on my face, and I heard a voice of One speaking.

Adam, as High Priest, would have been glorious, notice how the High Priestly garments are for glory;

Exo_28:2 And you shall make holy garments for your brother Aaron, for glory and for beauty.

Exo_28:40 And you shall make tunics for the sons of Aaron; and you shall make girdles for them; and you shall make turbans for them, for glory and for beauty.

In Ezekiel 2, Ezekiel is called the son of man;

Eze 2:1 And He said to me, Son of man, stand on your feet, and I will speak to you.

Notice this happens after Ezekiel identifies that there was a likeness in appearance like Adam on it, the phrase son of man, then, seems to grant Ezekiel sonship to this Adam like figure, bringing together themes of High Priest and sonship in Ezekiel.

Some [late?] rabbinic names for Adam;

[ B ] The first man was the light of the world, since it is written, ``The spirit of man is the lamp of the Lord, [searching all his innermost parts`` (Prov.20.27)].
[ C ] But Eve caused him to die. y.Shab.2.6, 19b-20a

[ B ] [Menstrual separation:] The first man (= `DM) was the lifeblood (DM) of the world.
[ C ] And it is written, ``Whoever sheds the blood of man by man shall his blood be shed`` (Gen.9.6). [Therefore:]
[ D ] But Eve caused him to die. Therefore the religious requirement covering menstrual separation was assigned to woman..
y.Shab.2.6 III

[ A ] And as to dough offering: The first man was the clean dough offering for the world, for it is written, [reading Gen.2.6 here and not in B:] ``But a flow would well up from the ground and water the whole face of the earth.`` And it is written, ``Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, [and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being]`` (Gen.2.7). y.Shab.2.6, 19b-20a
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nazarene
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Re: All things Temple and High Priestly...

Post by nazarene » Wed Jul 10, 2019 2:07 pm

The Priestly and Temple ability to transmit holiness...

Exo 30:25 And you shall make it an oil of holy anointing, ointment compound, the work of a perfumer, an oil of holy anointing it shall be.
Exo 30:26 And you shall anoint with it the tabernacle of the congregation and the ark of the testimony,
Exo 30:27 and the table and all its vessels and the altar of incense,
Exo 30:28 and the altar of burnt offering, and all its vessels, and the laver and its base.
Exo 30:29 And you shall sanctify them, and they shall become most holy; everything touching them shall become holy.

Eze 44:16 They shall enter into My sanctuary, and they shall come near to My table, to minister to Me. And they shall keep My charge.
Eze 44:17 And it shall be when they enter in the gates of the inner court, they shall be clothed with bleached linen garments. And wool shall not come upon them while they minister in the gates of the inner court, and in the house.
Eze 44:18 Turbans of bleached linen shall be on their heads, and bleached linen undergarments shall be on their loins. They shall not gird with sweat.
Eze 44:19 And when they go out into the outer court, to the outer court to the people, they shall put off their garments by which they ministered and lay them in the holy rooms. And they shall put on other garments, and they shall not sanctify the people with their own garments.
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Re: All things Temple and High Priestly...

Post by nazarene » Wed Jul 10, 2019 2:17 pm

..In the retelling of Numbers 16:41-50 in the wisdom of Solomon [written at the latest in the 1st Century] Aaron goes outside the sanctuary wearing his garments and together with his word he has the ability to stop the forces of death;

[22] He conquered the wrath not by strength of body,
and not by force of arms,
but by his word he subdued the punisher,
appealing to the oaths and covenants given to our fathers.
[23] For when the dead had already fallen on one another in heaps,
he intervened and held back the wrath,
and cut off its way to the living.
[24] For upon his long robe the whole world was depicted,
and the glories of the fathers were engraved
on the four rows of stones,
and thy majesty on the diadem upon his head.
[25] To these the destroyer yielded, these he feared;
for merely to test the wrath was enough.
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Re: All things Temple and High Priestly...

Post by nazarene » Thu Aug 15, 2019 6:08 pm

...The High Priest connected to holding the universe together...

Mos. 2:133 133 The high priest, then, being equipped in this way, is properly prepared for the performance of all sacred ceremonies, that, whenever he enters the temple to offer up the prayers and sacrifices in use among his nation, all the world may likewise enter in with him, by means of the imitations of it which he bears about him, the garment reaching to his feet, being the imitation of the air, the pomegranate of the water, the flowery hem of the earth, and the scarlet dye of his robe being the emblem of fire; also, the mantle over his shoulders being a representation of heaven itself; the two hemispheres being further indicated by the round emeralds on the shoulder-blades, on each of which were engraved six characters equivalent to six signs of the zodiac; the twelve stones arranged on the breast in four rows of three stones each, namely the logeum, being also an emblem of that reason which holds together and regulates the universe.
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Re: All things Temple and High Priestly...

Post by nazarene » Wed Oct 30, 2019 1:57 pm

Philo and Josephus speaking about the offerings and Temple furniture and their meaning.

.....And the natures of the animals above mentioned have an intimate connection with the parts of the universe; the ox is connected with the earth, as being an animal employed in drawing the plough and in tilling the earth; the goat again is connected with the water (it is called in Greek and Armenian aix, or ajx), being an animal deriving its name from driving and rushing on (from ago or aisso); since water is an impetuous thing, and the course of rivers, and the extent of the breadth of the sea, and the sea itself agitated as it is by its ebb and flow, are witnesses of the propriety of the name and of the closeness of the connection. And the ram (aries) is connected with the air, as being a very violent and vivacious animal, on which account too the ram is more useful to mankind than any other animal as affording them raiment. Therefore, on account of these reasons, as I think, God orders him first to take these two female animals, the cow and the she-goat; since both these elements, earth and water, are material, and for the most part feminine. But the third he will have a male, namely the ram; because the air or wind has been explained as masculine; since the natures of all things are divided into bodies or into earth and water, and female animals exist by nature. But that which exhibits a similitude to the soul is arranged under the head of air and the breath of life. And this, as I have said, is masculine. If therefore we are to call that masculine which is the moving and active cause we must call that feminine which is moved and passive. But the whole heaven is found to be familiarly connected with flying birds such as the pigeon and turtle dove, being distributed as it is into the rotatory path of the planets and fixed stars. Therefore he dedicates the pigeon to the planets, for that is a tame and domestic animal, as also the planets are more familiarly connected with us as being nearer to the earth, and as having sympathies with us; but he consecrates the turtle dove to the fixed stars, for that animal is a lover of solitude, and flees from the conversation of the multitude, and from all connection of every kind. ...QG 3:3

But the reason on account of which every one of the animals to be offered is to be three years of age has already been explained; and we must now discuss it under another form of mystery, since it has been seen that every one of those things which were called into existence and subsequently to the moon, such as the earth, water, and air, rejoice in an order connected with the number three. In the divisions of earth there is a vast quantity of dry continent, islands and peninsulas. Water is divided into sea, rivers, and lakes; and the air into the two equinoxes, the vernal and the autumnal; and they may be taken as one, for they have an equal proportion of day and night, and accordingly the equinoxes are neither hot nor cold. Add to these the changes of summer and winter, for the sun is borne through those three circles into the seasons of summer, winter, and the equinoxes. Therefore, in the first place, the natural arrangement will be of this kind; and the moral arrangement is properly thus.

Decal. 1:160 160 And also the day on which is offered the sheaf of corn, as an offering of gratitude for the fertility and productiveness of the plain, as exhibited in the fullness of the ears of corn. And the day of pentecost, which is numbered from this day by seven portions of seven days, in which it is the custom to offer up loaves, which are truly called the loaves of the first fruits, since, in fact, they are the first fruits of the productions and crops of eatable grain, which God has given to mankind, as the most tractable of all his creatures.

Somn. 2:74 74 From which the priest taking a handful with his whole hand, that is to say, with the whole grasp of his mind, is commanded to offer up the whole soul itself, full of the most unalloyed and pure doctrines, as the most excellent of sacrifices, fat and in good condition, rejoicing in divine light, and redolent of the exhalations which are given forth by justice, and by the other virtues, so as always to enjoy a most fragrant, and delicious, and happy life; for the oil and the frankincense, of which the priest takes a handful with the white wheat, contain a figurative assertion of this.

Spec. 3:56 56 And the priest shall take the barley and offer it to the woman, and shall take away from her the head-dress on her head, that she may be judged with her head bare, and deprived of the symbol of modesty, which all those women are accustomed to wear who are completely blameless; and there shall not be any oil used, nor any frankincense, as in the case of other sacrifices, because the sacrifice now offered is to be accomplished on no joyful occasion, but on one which is very grievous.

Ebr. 1:4 4 II. Moses looks upon an unmixed wine as a symbol not of one thing only but of many, namely of trifling, and playing the fool, and of all kinds of insensibility and of insatiable greediness, and of a covetousness which is hard to be pleased, and of a cheerfulness which comprehends many other objects, and of a nakedness which is apparent in all the things now mentioned, such as that which he says Noah, when drunk, displayed himself in. Wine, then, is said to produce all these effects.

Mut. 1:245-247 245 XLIII. Therefore he has called the purifying victims which are to be offered up for the three offenders, the mind, speech, and the action, a sheep, and a pair of turtle doves or pigeons, and the tenth part of a sacred measure of fine flour; thinking it fit that the mind should be purified by a sheep, the speech by winged creatures, and the action by fine flour: Why is this? 246 Because, as the mind is the most excellent thing in us, so also is the sheep the most excellent among irrational animals, inasmuch as it is the most gentle, and also as it gives forth a yearly produce in its fleece, for the use and also for the ornament of mankind. For clothes keep off all injury from both cold and heat, and also they conceal the unmentionable parts of nature, and in this way they are an ornament to those who use them: 247 therefore the sheep, as being the most excellent of animals, is a symbol of the purification of the most excellent part of man, the mind. And birds are an emblem of the purification of the speech: for speech is a light thing, and winged by nature, flying and penetrating in every direction more swiftly than an arrow. For what is once said can never be re-called; but being borne abroad, and running on with great swiftness, it strikes the ears and penetrates every sense of hearing, resounding loudly: but speech is of two kinds, one true and the other false;

Opif. 1:116-117 116 And the sun, the ruler of the day, making two equinoxes every year, both in spring and autumn. The spring equinox in the constellation of Aries, and the autumnal one in Libra, gives the most evident demonstration possible of the divine dignity of the number seven. For each of the equinoxes takes place in the seventh month, at which time men are expressly commanded by law to celebrate the greatest and most popular and comprehensive festivals; since it is owing to both these seasons, that all the fruits of the earth are engendered and brought to perfection; the fruit of corn, and all other things which are sown, being owing to the vernal equinox; and that of the vine, and of all the other plants which bear hard berries, of which there are great numbers, to the autumnal one. 117 XL. And since all the things on the earth depend upon the heavenly bodies according to a certain natural sympathy, it is in heaven too that the ratio of the number seven began, and from thence it descended to us also, coming down to visit the race of mortal men. And so again, besides the dominant part of our mind, our soul is divided into seven divisions; there being five senses, and besides them the vocal organ, and after that the generative power. All which things, like the puppets in a show, which are moved by strings by the manager, are at one time quiet, and at another time in motion, each according to its suitable habits and capacities of motion.

Opif. 1:113 113 The planets too, and the corresponding host of fixed stars, are arrayed in seven divisions, displaying a very great sympathy with the air and the earth. For they turn the air towards the times, that are called the seasons of the year, causing in each of them innumerable changes by calm weather, and pleasant breezes, and clouds, and irresistible blasts of wind. And again, they make rivers to overflow and to subside, and turn plains into lakes; and again, on the contrary, they dry up the waters: they also cause the alterations of the seas, when they receded, and return with a reflux. For at times, when the tide recedes on a sudden, an extensive line of shore occupies what is usually a wide gulf of sea; and in a short time afterwards, the waters are brought back, and there appears a sea, sailed over, not by shallow boats, but by ships of exceeding great burden. And they also give increase and perfection to all the terrestrial animals and plants which produce fruit, endowing each with a nature to last a long time, so that new plants may flourish and come to maturity;— the old ones having passed away, in order to provide an abundant supply of necessary things.

Her. 1:226-227 226 XLVI. This other point also is too important to deserve to be passed over in silence: that, as there are three vessels among the sacred furniture, a candlestick, a bath, and an altar of incense; the altar of incense has reference to that gratitude which is exhibited for the bestowal of the elements, as has been shown before, since it does itself also receive a portion from these four, receiving wood from the earth, and the spices which are burnt from the water; for, being first of all liquefied, they are dissolved into drops of moisture, and vapor from the air, and form the fire the spark which kindles the whole; and the composition of frankincense, and galbanum. and onycha, and stacte, is a symbol of the four elements; and the table is referred to the gratitude which is displayed for the mortal things which are made out of the elements, for loaves and libations are placed upon it, which the creatures who stand in need of nourishment must of necessity use. And the candlestick has reference to the gratitude exhibited for all the things existing in heaven, in order that no portion of the world may lie under the imputation of ingratitude; but that we may see that every single part of it gives thanks, the elements, the things made of them, and not those only which are made on earth, but also those in heaven. 227 XLVII. And it is worth while to consider why, after having explained the measures of the table and of the altar of incense, he has given no such description of the candlestick; may it not be, perhaps, for the reason that the elements and all the mortal things which are compounded of them, of which the table and the altar of incense are symbols, have been measured, inasmuch as they are terminated in heaven? For that which surrounds anything is invariably the measure of that which is surrounded; but the heaven, of which the candlestick is the symbol, is of infinite magnitude;

Mos. 1:219 219 Then Moses erected an altar, which from the circumstances that had taken place he named the refuge of God, on which he offered sacrifices in honor of his victory, and poured forth prayers of gratitude to God.

Mos. 2:101 101 IX. And in the space between the five pillars and the four pillars, is that space which is, properly speaking, the space before the temple, being cut off by two curtains of woven work, the inner one of which is called the veil, and the outer one is called the covering: and the remaining three vessels, of those which I have enumerated, were placed as follows:-- The altar of incense was placed in the middle, between earth and water, as a symbol of gratitude, which it was fitting should be offered up, on account of the things that had been done for the Hebrews on both these elements, for these elements have had the central situation of the world allotted to them.

Mos. 2:104 104 X. And the table, on which bread and salt are laid, was placed on the northern side, since it is the north which is the most productive of winds, and because too all nourishment proceeds from heaven and earth, the one giving rain, and the other bringing to perfection all seeds by means of the irrigation of water;

Mos. 2:105 105 for the symbols of heaven and earth are placed side by side, as the holy scripture shows, the candlestick being the symbol of heaven, and that which is truly called the altar of incense, on which all the fumigatory offerings are made, being the emblem of the things of earth.

Mos. 2:102 102 The candlestick was placed on the southern side of the tabernacle, since by it the maker intimates, in a figurative manner, the motions of the stars which give light; for the sun, and the moon, and the rest of the stars, being all at a great distance from the northern parts of the universe, make all their revolutions in the south. And from this candlestick there proceeded six branches, three on each side, projecting from the candlestick in the center, so as altogether to complete the number of seven;

Spec. 1:171 171 Moreover, the most fragrant of all incenses are offered up twice every day in the fire, being burnt within the veil, both when the sun rises and sets, before the morning and after the evening sacrifice, so that the sacrifices of blood display our gratitude for ourselves as being composed of blood, but the offerings of incense show our thankfulness for the dominant part within us, our rational spirit, which was fashioned after the archetypal model of the divine image.

Spec. 1:285 285 The law says, "A fire shall be kept burning on the altar which shall never be extinguished, but shall be kept burning for ever." [Leviticus 6:9.] I think with great reason and propriety; for, since the graces of God are everlasting, and unceasing, and uninterrupted, which we now enjoy day and night, and since the symbol of gratitude is the sacred flame, it is fitting that it should be kindled, and that it should remain unextinguished for ever.

The Jewish War 5:218 218 but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, signified that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to his use.

Antiquities of the Jews 4:203 203 ``Let those who live as remote as the bounds of the land which the Hebrews shall possess, come to that city where the temple shall be, and this three times in a year, that they may give thanks to God for his former benefits, and may entreat him for those they shall want hereafter; and let them, by this means, maintain a friendly correspondence with one another by such meetings and feastings together;

Mos. 2:106 106 But it became usual to call the altar which was in the open air the altar of sacrifice, as being that which preserved and took care of the sacrifices; intimating, figuratively, the consuming power of these things, and not the lambs and different parts of the victims which were offered, and which were naturally calculated to be destroyed by fire, but the intention of him who offered them;

Antiquities of the Jews 8:111-112 111 When the king had thus discoursed to the multitude, he looked again toward the temple, and lifting up his right hand to the multitude, he said, ``It is not possible by what men can do to return sufficient thanks to God for his benefits bestowed upon them, for the Deity stands in need of nothing, and is above any such requital; but so far as we have been made superior, O Lord, to other animals by you, it becomes us to bless your Majesty, and it is necessary for us to return you thanks for what you have bestowed upon our house, and on the Hebrew people; 112 for with what other instrument can we better appease you when you are angry at us, or more properly preserve your favour, than with our voice? which, as we have it from the air, so do we know that by that air it ascends upward [toward you]. I therefore ought myself to return you thanks thereby, in the first place, concerning my father, whom you have raised from obscurity to so great joy;

Antiquities of the Jews 5:284 284 which when they had done, he touched the flesh with the rod which he had in his hand, which, upon the breaking out of a flame, was consumed, together with the loaves; and the angel ascended openly, in their sight, up to heaven, by means of the smoke, as by a vehicle. Now Manoah was afraid that some danger would come to them from this sight of God; but his wife bade him be of good courage, for that God appeared to them for their benefit.
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Re: All things Temple and High Priestly...

Post by nazarene » Wed Oct 30, 2019 2:01 pm

Midrash Rabbah Genesis speaking about the constellations and produce;

R. Simon said : There is not a single herb but has a constellation in heaven which strikes it and says, 'Grow,' as it is written, Knowest thou the ordinances of the heavens? Canst thou establish the dominion thereof (mishtaro) in the earth (Job xxxvin, 33)? 1 Canst thou bind the chains of the Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion (ib. 31)? R. Hanina b. Papa and R. Simon said : Pleiades binds the fruit and Orion draws it out between knot and knot, 2 as it is written, Canst thou lead forth the constellations (mazaroth) in their season (ib. 32)? R. Tanhuni b. R. Hiyya and R. Simon said: ['Mazaroth' connotes] the constellation which ripens (memazzer) the fruits.
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