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nazarene
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A Messianic reading of...

Post by nazarene » Sun Apr 22, 2018 1:44 pm

A Messianic reading of Romans.

The apostle Paul has a very Mashiach-centered approach to the reading of the Torah. He 'sees' Mashiach in the Torah and he expresses this sometimes explicitly and sometimes implicitly. This reading of Romans concentrates on the implicit messianic reading of the Scriptures by the apostle Paul.

Rom 9:30 What then shall we say? That the nations not following after righteousness have taken on righteousness, but a righteousness of faith;
Rom 9:31 but Israel following after a Law of righteousness did not arrive at a Law of righteousness?

Yisrael 'followed' after a law of righteousness, the Greek word 'followed' can mean to 'persecute' [see Romans 12:14]. This pursuing of a law of righteousness is connected to the phrase 'works of the law' [see below]. We have data which now helps us understand this phrase [see viewtopic.php?f=2&t=11], this phrase was used within first century Temple period judaism to denote a set of interpretations about the written Torah to bring about a righteousness before the Most High.

Rom 9:32 Why? Because it was not of faith, but as of works of Law. For they stumbled at the Stone-of-stumbling,
Rom 9:33 as it has been written, "Behold, I place in" "Zion a Stone-of-stumbling," "and a Rock-of-offense," "and everyone believing on Him will not be shamed." LXX and MT-Isa. 28:16; MT-Isa. 8:14

The 'faith' spoken of here is not a general kind of 'faith'. The apostle Paul makes a distinction in Galatians about a 'revealed faith' [see Galatians 3:23]. This 'revealed faith' had been 'unpacked' in the first century and now was being offered to those who would accept it. If this faith was revealed then at some point it was hidden. This revealed faith centered around Mashiach Yeshua. Notice how the 'stone of stumbling' and 'rock of offence' are seen as Mashiach-centered wording. Even though these verses do not use the word 'mashiach' the apostle Paul is seeing an implicit [although really explicit to him] Mashiach reading of the verses.

Rom 10:1 Brothers, truly my heart's pleasure and supplication to God on behalf of Israel is for it to be saved.
Rom 10:2 For I testify to them that they have zeal to God, but not according to knowledge.
Rom 10:3 For being ignorant of the righteousness of God, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, they did not submit to the righteousness of God.

Notice here that the apostle Paul does not argue against looking for a 'law of righteousness' he accepts that the search was a valid one but that it was not 'arrived' at due to the missing component of the 'revealed faith'. He then continues on to explain how this revealed faith is found within the Torah with a Mashiach-centered reading of the Scriptures;

Rom 10:4 For Christ is the end of Law for righteousness to everyone that believes.
Rom 10:5 For Moses writes of the righteousness which is of the Law: "The man doing these things shall live by them." Lev. 18:5

Mashiach is the 'end' or 'goal' [the Greek word can be translated either way]. He is the termination of the search for the 'law of righteousness' [Romans 9:31]. A citation of Leviticus 18:5 is then given and here is where Paul's implicit Mashiach-centered reading of the Scriptures comes into focus in the context of his argument.

When the apostle Paul writes 'The man doing these things' an implicit implication is that he is speaking of one man, the man Yeshua. Earlier on in his epistle he goes to lengths to demonstrate that Yeshua is equated to Adam, a man [see Romans 5:15]. The sense of the first part of the verse would then read like this 'The man [Yeshua] doing these things'.

The second part of the verse is also understood messianically. There is some outside evidence to demonstrate that potentially in the first century 'to live' in Leviticus 18:5 was understood in the sense of eternal life [see targum https://juchre.org/targums/plev.htm#lev18.]. This would lead the apostle Paul to read 'shall live by them' in the sense of 'eternal life'. This connection between 'live' and 'eternal life' is also seen in the Gospel of Luke [see Luke 10:25-28].

When the two parts of the verse are connected together the reasoning would be thus; The man [Yeshua] doing these things [observing the Torah] shall live [eternally, i.e. be resurrected] by them. This would mean that verses 4 and 5 should be read as a unit of thought not relating to different points but the same point.

That which Yisrael pursued after, Mashiach obtained in his observance of the Torah. The apostle Paul's argument then flows onto other verses of the Torah describing a righteousness of faith which the Torah proclaims.

Romans 10:6 But the righteousness of faith says this: "Do not say in your heart, Who will go up into Heaven?" (that is, to bring down Christ);
Rom 10:7 or, "Who will go down into the abyss?" (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.)
Rom 10:8 But what does it say? "The Word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart" (that is, the Word of faith which we proclaim) Deuteronomy 30:12-14.

Given that the is an implicit reading of the 'man' of Leviticus 18:5 as Mashiach and that he did the Torah enough to merit resurrection [and thus 'eternal life'] it makes sense as to why Paul is now speaking about a resurrection. The righteousness by the 'revealed faith' is now unpacked and the Torah infact [according to Paul's reading] now proclaims the 'Word of faith' that he speaks of. Notice again the Mashiach-centered interpretation of the Torah concerning the 'Word' spoken of in Deuteronomy, another implicit example of Paul's reading of the Scriptures in a Mashiach-centered way.
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nazarene
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Re: A Messianic reading of...

Post by nazarene » Sat Jan 05, 2019 7:09 pm

שלום!

Matthew 1:16 16 Ya'akov was the father of Yosef the husband of Miryam, from whom was born the Yeshua who was called the Messiah.

Why is Miriam, the mother of Yeshua, called Miriam?

Using gezerah shavah I believe it is possible to answer this question. A gezerah shavah is an interpretive technique that permits the joining of two or more Scriptures together based on similar wording, phrase or shared subject matter.

Mat 1:23 "Behold! The virgin will conceive in her womb and will bear a son, and they will call His name Emmanuel" (which translated is, God with us).

In the above translation it translates the Greek word for 'the' in the phrase 'the virgin', this is significant, as in the Hebrew 'the' is also used;

Isa 7:14 So, The Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold! The virgin will conceive and will bring forth a son; and she shall call His name Immanuel.

The Hebrew is as follows;

Isa 7:14 לכן יתן אדני הוא לכם אות הנה העלמה הרה וילדת בן וקראת שׁמו עמנו אל׃

Bypassing whether almah should be rendered virgin or young woman, the construction העלמה [i.e. the young woman/virgin] is used very rarely in the Tanach, it only occurs in two other locations, which are Genesis 24:43 and Exodus 2:8.

To someone living in the first century, who is familiar with the interpretive technique of a gezerah shavah the usage of העלמה in Isaiah 7:14 would be significant and other locations could be looked for to shed light on the meaning of it.

When the other two locations are combined with Isaiah 7:14, it would also be permissible to bring in the context of the other locations.

Looking at Genesis 24:43 we have the context of a woman [Rivkah] who is about to be betrothed who would eventually carry on the descendants of Avraham.

Gen 24:43 Behold! I stand at the well of water, and when the virgin comes out to draw water, and I say to her, Please let me drink a little water from your pitcher,

Gen 24:43 הנה אנכי נצב על־עין המים והיה העלמה היצאת לשׁאב ואמרתי אליה השׁקיני־נא מעט־מים מכדך׃

The other location is Exodus;

Exo 2:8 and the daughter of Pharaoh saith to her, `Go;' and the virgin goeth, and calleth the mother of the lad,

Exo 2:8 ותאמר־לה בת־פרעה לכי ותלך העלמה ותקרא את־אם הילד׃

Here the construction העלמה is used with the sister of Mosheh, that being Miriam.

If we combine both locations [Genesis 24:43 and Exodus 2:8] we get the broader context of a betrothed woman called Miriam who would bring forth an heir to the promises given to Avraham.

This context would then be used when interpreting Isaiah 7:14 to elucidate and unpack additional meaning.

Given this context, we come back to Matthew 1, combing the themes of betrothal, virgin/young woman, the name Miriam and an heir to the promises of Avraham.
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nazarene
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Re: A Messianic reading of...

Post by nazarene » Fri Jan 25, 2019 2:06 pm

שלום!

Joh 3:7 Do not wonder because I said to you, You must be generated from above.
Joh 3:7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again.

Where does the imagery of being 'born again' or 'born from above' come from? The two translations above show how the Greek can either be translated 'above' or 'again', this post will set out evidence to demonstrate that it should be translated 'above' and who exactly the woman is who is 'above'.

Joh 3:4 Nicodemus said to Him, How is a man able to be generated, being old? He is not able to enter into his mother's womb a second time and be born?

Both Yeshua and Nicodemus knew the Scriptures well, the imagery of birth, a womb and a woman would not be random choices of imagery, rather, its a very specific woman, birth and womb which is being spoken of.

Is there a mother who is above?

Gal 4:26 But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.

In Galatians the apostle Paul informs us that Jerusalem above is the mother of us all. Not only is Jerusalem identified with being above, but she is connected to giving birth and having children;

Gal 4:31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.

That Jerusalem was above is also shown in Revelation;

Rev 21:10 And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God,

Jerusalem descends downwards, the implication is that she was first above.

The imagery of a woman giving birth is also used later on in the Gospel of John;

Joh 16:21 A woman when she is in travail hath sorrow, because her hour is come: but as soon as she is delivered of the child, she remembereth no more the anguish, for joy that a man is born into the world.
Joh 16:22 And ye now therefore have sorrow: but I will see you again, and your heart shall rejoice, and your joy no man taketh from you.

This again isn't random imagery, the same woman is being spoken of that we see in John 3. We have the imagery of a woman giving birth, sorrow and then a rejoicing of heart, these types of imagery are based upon the Prophets.

Isa 66:7 Before she travailed, she brought forth; before her pain came, she was delivered of a man child.
Isa 66:8 Who hath heard such a thing? who hath seen such things? Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day? or shall a nation be born at once? for as soon as Zion travailed, she brought forth her children.
Isa 66:9 Shall I bring to the birth, and not cause to bring forth? saith the LORD: shall I cause to bring forth, and shut the womb? saith thy God.
Isa 66:10 Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all ye that love her: rejoice for joy with her, all ye that mourn for her:
Isa 66:11 That ye may suck, and be satisfied with the breasts of her consolations; that ye may milk out, and be delighted with the abundance of her glory.
Isa 66:12 For thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will extend peace to her like a river, and the glory of the Gentiles like a flowing stream: then shall ye suck, ye shall be borne upon her sides, and be dandled upon her knees.
Isa 66:13 As one whom his mother comforteth, so will I comfort you; and ye shall be comforted in Jerusalem.
Isa 66:14 And when ye see this, your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like an herb: and the hand of the LORD shall be known toward his servants, and his indignation toward his enemies.

When Yeshua tells his disciples that their “heart shall rejoice” given the background imagery of a woman giving birth this would bring to mind the promise in Isaiah;

Isa 66:14 And when ye see this, your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like an herb: and the hand of the LORD shall be known toward his servants, and his indignation toward his enemies.

That the woman was to give birth to a 'man' is also an allusion to the Prophet Isaiah;

Joh 16:21 A woman when she is in travail hath sorrow, because her hour is come: but as soon as she is delivered of the child, she remembereth no more the anguish, for joy that a man is born into the world.

Isa 66:7 Before she travailed, she brought forth; before her pain came, she was delivered of a man child.

This type of imagery is also used in Revelation;

Rev 12:1 And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars:
Rev 12:2 And she being with child cried, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered.
Rev 12:3 And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads.
Rev 12:4 And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.
Rev 12:5 And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne.

The discussion between Yeshua and Nicodemus is about the expectations of the Prophets concerning Zion and her restoration, whom Yeshua is indicating that the time has come for Zion to bear her children and so be restored.
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nazarene
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Re: A Messianic reading of...

Post by nazarene » Wed Jun 12, 2019 12:14 pm

A targumic reading...

1Co 15:55 "O death, where is your sting? Hades, where is your victory?"
1Co_15:56 Now the sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the Law;

The Torah is the Instruction of the Most High, His Word, His דבר, with this in mind we can then understand the apostle Paul is doing a midrash with the preceding verses;

Hos 13:14 I will ransom them from the hand of Sheol; I will redeem them from death. O death, where are your plagues? O Sheol, where is your ruin? Repentance is hidden from My eyes.

When we look to the Hebrew of the verse he is citing, we have this;

Hos 13:14 מיד שׁאול אפדם ממות אגאלם אהי דבריך מות אהי קטבך שׁאול נחם יסתר מעיני׃

The word for “your plagues” is דבריך, if read without the vowel pointing, it can be read as “Your Words”, and the apostle Paul is picking up on this targumic reading, his reasoning is thus;

Plagues ==> interpreted as sting ==> which is interpreted as sin ==> which is powered by Torah [the Word].

This type of connection is also seen in the Targum of Hosea;

my Word shall be among them to kill, and my Word to destroy [Targum of Hosea 13:14].

Just like the apostle Paul, the Targum here is interpreting plagues as the Word, i.e. the Torah.

1Co_15:55 "O death, where is your sting? Hades, where is your victory?" Hos. 13:14

The word “victory” is not in Hosea 13:14, so we have another example of interpretation, the word should be ruin, but here the apostle Paul equates ruin [corruption] with victory, and then goes on to speak about the victory we have in Yeshua [compare 1Corinthians 15:57 to 15:54], who did not see corruption when he was buried [Acts 13:37].

The reasoning is thus;

Ruin [Hosea 13:14] ==> victory for sheol ==> overcome with the victory of Isaiah 25:8 [1Corinthians 15:54] ==> through Yeshua [1Corinthians 15:57].
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nazarene
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Re: A Messianic reading of...

Post by nazarene » Mon Jun 24, 2019 4:16 pm

שלום!

The midrashic third day resurrection connection...

Just before the nation are given the Torah in Exodus 19, the third day is spoken of;

Exo 19:16 And it came to pass on the third day, as the morning drew nigh, there were voices and lightnings and a dark cloud on mount Sina: the voice of the trumpet sounded loud, and all the people in the camp trembled.

In the first century, the apostle Paul links the resurrection with a blast of a trumpet;

1Co 15:52 In a moment, in a glance of an eye, at the last trumpet; for a trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall all be changed.
1Co 15:53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.

Is there any sources which can help us understand why he would make this association?

And all the people saw the thunders, and were turned back, every one as he heard them coming forth from the midst of the lights, and the voice of the trumpet as it will raise the dead, and the mountain smoking; and all the people saw and drew back, and stood twelve miles off. [Targum Jonathan Exodus XX]

The trumpet that would raise from the dead was associated with the trumpet blast at Sinai. There are other traditions also recorded that associate the resurrection and Sinai, where when the people receive the Torah, when the Words are spoken, they die, but the Most High then resurrects them;

R. Joshua b. Levi [PA1] also said: At every word which went forth from the mouth of the Holy One, blessed be He, the souls of Israel departed, for it is said, My soul went forth when he spake. But since their souls departed at the first word, how could they receive the second word? He brought down the dew with which he will resurrect the dead and revived them, as it is said, Thou, O God, didst send a plentiful rain, Thou didst confirm thine inheritance, when it was weary. b.Shabbath ch.9.3-4, 86a

The Targum of Psalms also relates this tradition;

When the house of Israel heard the voice of your power, their souls flew away; at once he made to descend upon them the dew of resurrection; O God, you brought the favorable rain to your inheritance, and you supported the assembly which was exhausted. [Targum of Psalms 68:10]

Exodus Rabbah 29:4 also has the tradition that there was death and resurrection associated with the giving of the Torah;

דבר אחר "אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ" רבי אחא ברבי חנינא פתח בו (תהלים נ, ז) שמעה עמי ואדברה (כמ"ש בעשרת הדברות (פסיקתא רבתי, יב) עד)
א"ר שמעון בן יוחאי אמר להם הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל אלוה אני על כל באי עולם אבל לא יחדתי שמי אלא עליכם איני נקרא אלהי עובדי כוכבים ומזלות אלא אלהי ישראל א"ר לוי שני דברים שאלו ישראל מלפני הקדוש ברוך הוא שיראו כבודו וישמעו קולו והיו רואין את כבודו ושומעין את קולו שנאמר (דברים ה, כא) ותאמרו הן הראנו ה' אלהינו את כבודו ואת גדלו וכתיב (שם) ואת קולו שמענו מתוך האש ולא היה בהם כח לעמוד שכיון שבאו לסיני ונגלה להם פרחה נשמתם על שדבר עמהם שנאמר (שיר ה, ו) נפשי יצאה בדברו אבל התורה בקשה עליהם רחמים מלפני הקדוש ברוך הוא יש מלך משיא בתו והורג אנשי ביתו כל העולם כולו שמחים ובניך מתים מיד חזרה נשמתן שנאמר (תהלים יט, ח) תורת ה' תמימה משיבת נפש א"ר לוי וכי לא היה גלוי לפני המקום שאם הוא מראה כבודו לישראל ומשמיען קולו שאינן יכולין לעמוד אלא צפה הקדוש ברוך הוא שהן עתידין לעשות עבודת כוכבים שלא יהו אומרין אלו הראנו את כבודו ואת גדלו והשמיענו את קולו לא היינו עושים עבודת כוכבים לכך נאמר שמעה עמי ואדברה [Exodus Rabbah 29:4]

….And his voice was heard, and they saw his honor and heard his voice, as it is stated (Deuteronomy 5:21) And they said: "We have heard from the fire, and there was no strength in them to stand, for when they came to Sinai and were revealed to them, their soul flourished for having spoken with them, As it is written (Song of Songs 5: 6): My soul came out as he spoke. But the Torah asked them for mercy from the Holy One, blessed be He...[approximate translation]

That these targumic sources can go back to the first century, is further supported by the 2nd benediction of the amidah, the standing prayer, which parts of can be dated back to the first century;

You are powerful, humbling the proud;
Strong, and judging the violent;
Alive forever, raising the dead;
Making wind blow and dew fall;
Sustaining the living, reviving the dead.
Like the fluttering of an eye, make our salvation sprout.
Blessed are you Lord, reviving the dead

The dew falling is connected to the raising of the dead.

The phrase "fluttering of an eye" is also used in relation to the reviving of the dead, notice the parallel to the apostle Paul, which would strengthen the connection between him and his knowledge of the tradition;

1Co 15:52 In a moment, in a glance of an eye, at the last trumpet; for a trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall all be changed.

The apostle Paul would have been familiar with the amidah prayer, and together with his association with the trumpet that raises the dead, it seems in the first century that Sinai was being connected to a resurrection event, and what is also significant, is that the death and resurrection of the people would have happened on the third day.
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nazarene
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Re: A Messianic reading of...

Post by nazarene » Thu Jun 27, 2019 5:56 pm

שלום!

In Romans 10:7 the question is asked "Who will go down into the abyss?", the main citation from the verses is from Deuteronomy 30;

Deu 30:13 And it is not beyond the sea that you should say, Who shall cross over for us to the region beyond the sea and take it for us, and cause us to hear it, that we may do it?

Deu 30:13 Neither is it beyond the sea, saying, Who will go over for us to the other side of the sea, and take it for us, and make it audible to us, and we will do it? [Brenton, LXX]

Neither translation say go “down into the abyss”, but give the sense of crossing over, yet, in the Jerusalem Targum we have this;

The law is not in the heavens, that thou shouldst say, O that we had one like Mosheh the prophet to ascend into heaven, and bring it to us, and make us hear its commands, that we may do them! Neither is the law beyond the great sea, that thou shouldst say, O that we had one like Jonah the prophet, who could descend into the depths of the sea, and bring it to us, and make us hear its commands, that we may do them! For the word is very nigh you, in your mouth, that you may meditate upon it, and in your hearts, that you may perform it. See, behold, I have set before you this day the way of life, which is the path of the good, and the way of death, which is the path of the evil. Targum Jerusalem Deuteronomy 30

The wording could also be derived from Psalms 107;

Psa 107:26 they go up to the heavens; they go down to the depths; their soul is melted because they are in evil;

But what is interesting is that the Targum of Psalms also connects the depths to the story of Jonah;

22.  And they will sacrifice thanksgiving sacrifices, and will tell of his deeds in gladness.
23.  Concerning the sailors of Jonah son of Amittai, he prophesied and said, “The sailors, those who go down to the sea in ships, those who do work on many waters –
24.  They saw the deeds of the Lord, and his wonders in the deep.”
25.  And he gave command by his word, and raised up the storm and the gale, and its waves were lifted up high.
26.  They go up towards heaven, they go down to the depths of the abysses; their souls will melt in misery. Targum of Psalms 107

Given that neither the Hebrew or Greek specifically say “go down”, but “go over”, it may be that the apostle Paul is using a targumic connection and bringing in the phrase “go down” and by implication the story of Yonah in his argument in Romans 10...
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